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Fyodor I. Tolbukhin
Fyodor I. Tolbukhin (1894 – 1949) commanded the 57th Army during the Battle for Stalingrad, part of Yeremenko's Stalingrad Front. Born into a peasant family in the province of Yaroslavl, northeast of Moscow, he volunteered for the Imperial Russian Army in 1914 but joined the Red Army in 1918. He served in a number of staff positions and attended the Frunze Military Academy, graduating in 1931. He became Chief of Staff for the Transcaucasus Military District and then the Crimean Front after the German invasion. He was given command of the 57th Army from July 1942 until March 1943 and then led the South Front, which was renamed the 4th Ukrainian Front in October 1943. After liberating most of the Ukraine with Malinovsky's 3rd Ukrainian Front, he was then given command of the 3rd Ukrainian Front, while Petrov took over the 4th and Malinovsky took control of the 2nd. He was promoted to Marshal in September 1944. He continued the Soviet drive westwards, gradually veering south and then west to help 'liberate' Rumania, Bulgaria and Hungary. After the war he commanded the Southern Group of Forces and then the Transcaucasus Military District. He died on 17 October 1949. He is regarded as one of the finest Soviet generals of the Second World War and was respected by his fellow commanders and his men.
Tolbukhin was born into a peasant family in the province of Yaroslavl, north-east of Moscow. He volunteered for the Imperial Army in 1914 at the outbreak of World War I. He was steadily promoted, advancing from private to captain by 1916. He was also decorated for bravery multiple times.
In August 1918 Tolbukhin joined the Red Army, where he served as the chief of staff of the 56th infantry (Rifle?) division. After the Russian Civil War ended (1921), Tolbukhin was given a number of staff positions. He also attended the Frunze Military Academy for advanced staff training, graduating in 1931. In 1937, after a series of staff positions, Tolbukhin was given command of a division. In 1938, he was made chief of staff of the Transcaucasus Military District.
Tolbukhin remained in this position through the opening phases of Operation Barbarossa until August 1941, when he was made the chief of staff of the Crimean Front, which he held until March 1942. From May to July 1942, he was the assistant commander of the Stalingrad Military District. After that, he was the commander of the 58th Army until March 1943. The 58th was involved in the Battle of Stalingrad, where Tolbukhin's superior, Colonel-General Andrei Yeremenko, praised his command organization and military prowess. After his command of the 57th, Tolbukhin was placed in command of the Southern Front.
In October 1943 the Southern Front was renamed 4th Ukrainian Front. Tolbukhin assisted Rodion Malinovsky's 3rd Ukrainian Front in the Lower Dnieper Offensive and Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive. In May 1944, Tolbukhin was transferred to control of 3rd Ukrainian Front. During the Summer Campaign, from June to October 1944, Tolbukhin and Malinovsky launched their invasion of the Balkans and were able to conquer most of Romania. On September 12, 1944, two days after Malinovsky was promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union, Tolbukhin was promoted to the same rank. While Malinovsky moved northwest, towards Hungary and Yugoslavia, Tolbukhin occupied Bulgaria. Starting in the Winter Campaign, Tolbukhin shifted his army to the northwest axis, thereby liberating much of Yugoslavia and invading southern Hungary.
After the war, Tolbukhin was commander-in-chief of the Southern Group of Forces, which comprised the Balkan region. In January 1947, Tolbukhin was made the commander of the Transcaucasus Military District, a post he held until his death on October 17, 1949.
Tolbukhin is generally regarded as one of the finest Soviet generals of World War II. Meticulous, careful, and not overly ambitious like some Soviet commanders, Tolbukhin was well respected by fellow commanders and also his men, especially since he had a dedication to keeping casualty rates low. Tolbukhin was the recipient of numerous awards and medals including the highest Soviet medal and rank, the Victory Order and Hero of the Soviet Union, respectively. Tolbukhin was also a hero of Yugoslavia, whose capital Belgrade he liberated. The urn containing his ashes is buried in the Kremlin necropolis wall, and there is a monument to him in his native Yaroslavl.
Born June 4 (16), 1894, in the village of Androniki in what is now Tolbukhin Raion, Yaroslavl Oblast died Oct. 17,1949, in Moscow. Soviet military commander. Marshal of the Soviet Union (Sept. 12, 1944). Hero of the Soviet Union (conferred posthumously on May 7, 1965). Member of the Communist Party from 1938.
The son of a peasant, Tolbukhin graduated from a commercial school in 1912. He was conscripted into the army in 1914 and graduated from ensign school in 1915. Tolbukhin served in World War I as the commander of a company and a battalion and rose to the rank of captain. He was elected chairman of a regimental committee after the February Revolution of 1917. In August 1918 he enlisted in the Red Army. During the Civil War he served on the Western Front as assistant chief of staff and chief of staff of a division and as chief of staff for army operations. Tol-bukhin graduated from a staff service school in 1919, completed advanced courses in 1930, and graduated from the M. V. Frunze Military Academy in 1934. He was chief of staff of a division and a corps and served as a division commander. In 1938 he became chief of staff of the Transcaucasian Military District.
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941&ndash45, Tolbukhin was chief of staff of the Transcaucasian Front (August to December 1941), the Caucasian Front (December 1941 to January 1942), and the Crimean Front (January to March 1942). He served as deputy commander of troops in the Stalingrad Military District (May to July 1942) and as commander of troops of the Fifty-seventh and Sixty-eighth armies on the Stalingrad and Northwestern fronts (July 1942 to March 1943). He took command of troops on the Southern Front in March 1943, on the Fourth Ukrainian Front in October 1943, and on the Third Ukrainian Front in May 1944. Troops under Tolbukhin&rsquos command took part in the battle of Stalingrad, the liberation of the Ukraine and the Crimea, the Iasi-Kishinev Operation, and the liberation of Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Austria. Tolbukhin became commander in chief of the Southern Group of Forces in July 1945 and commander of troops in the Transcaucasian Military District in January 1947.
Tolbukhin was a deputy to the second convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He was awarded two Orders of Lenin, the Order of Victory, three Orders of the Red Banner, two Orders of Suvorov First Class, the Order of Kutuzov First Class, the Order of the Red Star, and various medals, as well as foreign orders and medals. He was made an honorary citizen of Sofia in 1946 and of Belgrade in 1947. Tolbukhin is buried on Red Square at the Kremlin wall. A monument to Tolbukhin, designed by G. A. Zakharov and sculpted by L. E. Kerbel&rsquo, was erected in Moscow in 1960.
Nicholas II runs tests on new uniforms for the soldiers of his army
Photo © State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)
This series of photographs depict Emperor Nicholas II wearing the uniform of a private soldier in Livadia. The Tsar made it his duty to run tests on new uniforms for the soldiers of his army.
Photo © State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)
In 1909, Vladimir Sukhomlinov the Minister of War was at work on an important reform, the determination of the type of clothing and equipment to be worn and carried in future by every Russian infantryman. When considering the modifications proposed by the Minister, the following provides a convincing proof of the extreme conscientiousness and sense of duty which inspired Nicholas II, as head of the army. The Tsar wanted full knowledge of the facts, and decided to test the proposed new equipment personally.
Photo © State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)
He told only Alexander Alexandrovich Mossolov (1854-1939), who served as Minister of the Court and the Commander of the Palace of his intention. They had the full equipment, new model, of a soldier in a regiment camping near Livadia brought to the palace. There was no falang, no making to exact measure for the Tsar he was in the precise position of any recruit who was put into the shirt, pants, and uniform chosen for him, and given his rifle, pouch, and cartridges. The Tsar was careful also to take the regulation supply of bread and water. Thus equipped, he went off alone, covered twenty kilometres out and back on a route chosen at random, and returned to the palace. Forty kilometres — twenty-five miles — is the full length of his forced march rarely are troops required to do more in a single day.
Photo © State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)
The Tsar returned at dusk, after eight or nine hours of marching, rest-time included. A thorough examination showed, beyond any possibility of doubt, that there was not a blister or abrasion of any part on his body. The boots had not hurt his feet. Next day the reform received the Sovereign’s approval.
Photo © State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF)
The Tsar regarded himself as a soldier — the first professional soldier of the Russian Empire. In this respect he would make no compromise: his duty was to do what every soldier had to do.
Excerpted from At the Court of the Last Tsar by A.A. Mossolov. English edition published in 1935
© Paul Gilbert. 14 April 2020
Fedor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (16 June 1894 – 17 October 1949) was a Soviet military commander. During World War II, Tolbukhin was responsible for invading/liberating much of Eastern Europe, including Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Hungary. Tolbukhin was unusual among Soviet military leaders in that he was careful about planning his operations, with an eye to minimizing Soviet casualties. During the war, he participated the Battle of Stalingrad, for which he received praise for his prowess by his commanding officer. In 1944, as commander of the Fourth Ukrainian Front, he occupied Bulgaria, and then liberated Yugoslavia that winter.
After the war he was made commander-in-chief of the Southern Group of Forces, which comprised the Balkans. In January 1947, Tolbukhin was made the commander of the Transcaucasus Military District, a post he held until his death.
Honours and awards
- (7 May 1965, posthumously) (№ 9 - 26 April 1945)
- Two Orders of Lenin (incl. 19 March 1944, 21 February 1945) , three times (18 October 1922, 3 November 1944) , 1st class, twice (28 January 1943, 16 May 1944) , 1st class (17 September 1943) (22 February 1938) , 3rd class , 3rd class (Yugoslavia, 31 May 1945)
- Hero of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (1979, posthumous) (Bulgaria) (Bułgaria)
- Order of the "Hungarian freedom"
- Grand Cross of the Order of "The Republic of Hungary"
- Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
- Honorary Citizen of Sofia and Belgrade
The Bulgarian city of Dobrich was renamed Tolbukhin, a name it held until the fall of communism in 1989.
A Prospect (street) in Odessa holds his name.
One of main streets in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia was named after general Tolbukhin: Marshal Tolbukhin Street (Ulica maršala Tobuhina in Serbian (Latin alphabet), Улица Маршала Толбухина also in Serbian (Cyrillic)). After "democratic revolution" and after the fall of communism in Yugoslavia and in Serbia, this street was renamed, and now its official name is "General McKenzie/MacKenzie Street" ("Mekenzijeva ulica" in Serbian).
Trivia is that Marshal Tolbukhin Street in Belgrade started from a "Square of Dimitrije Tucović" and continued to "Marshal Tito Street", all three now renamed to their pre World War II names. However, even after those decisions motivated by contemporary politics [ citation needed ] , people in Belgrade still use the "old" name of the street - Marshal Tolbukhin Street, since Marshal Tolbukhin (general at the time) was a commander in chief of the Red Army during liberation of Belgrade, the capital of old Yugoslavia and Serbia.
Budapest, the capital of Hungary also had one of its streets named after Tolbukhin, as he was one of the major Soviet commanders in the Hungarian war theatre. The previous Mészáros utca (Butchers' Street) was renamed Vámház körút (Custom House Circle) during the (re)construction of the area in 1875. The road was renamed after the Tsar of Bulgaria, Ferdinand in 1915, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the First World War. In 1919 the road got back its old name, Vámház körút, which it bore until 1942, when it was once more renamed, this time after Regent of Hungary, admiral Horthy. In 1945 the road was named after Marshall Tolbukhin (Tolbuhin körút - Tolbukhin Circle), and it held this name until 1990, fall of the Socialism. In 1990, Tolbukhin Circle got back its old name, Vámház körút for the third time.
Death and burial ground of Tolbukhin, Fedor Ivanovich.
After the war, Tolbukhin was commander-in-chief of the Southern Group of Forces, which comprised the Balkan region. In January 1947, Tolbukhin was made the commander of the Transcaucasus Military District, a post he held until his death on 17-10-1949, young age, 55 in Moscow.
Tolbukhin is generally regarded as one of the finest Soviet Generals of World War II. Meticulous, careful, and not overly ambitious like some Soviet commanders, Tolbukhin was well respected by fellow commanders and also his men, especially since he had a dedication to keeping casualty rates low. Tolbukhin was the recipient of numerous awards and medals including the highest Soviet medal and rank, the Victory Order and Hero of the Soviet Union, respectively. Tolbukhin was also a hero of Yugoslavia, whose capital Belgrade he liberated. The urn containing Tolbukhin’s ashes is buried in the Kremlin necropolis wall, and there is a monument to him in his native Yaroslavl. My friend Radek Hroch visted the Kremlin Wall and sent me the grave photo’s, with great gratitude.
Fyodor I. Tolbukhin (1894 - 1949) - History
Yaroslavl State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum and Heritage Site
the Museum of Victory, Moscow
The Moscow Kremlin Museums, Yaroslavl State Museum and Heritage Site, Museum of Victory
It is for the first time that the Moscow Kremlin Museums present Marshal F.I. Tolbukhin's Order "Victory" at the memorial exhibition dedicated to a single masterpiece in Yaroslavl State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum and Heritage Site.
A Commander's Supreme Military Order "Victory" was established on 8 November 1943, when battles were still taking place on the Soviet territory. It was conceived as a valuable award, each order was to contain approximately equal amounts of gold, platinum, diamonds and rubies. The level of execution of the order is unique - it is remarkable for its conciseness and precision of symbolism, the highest value of materials and quality of jewellery work, despite the short time between the development and implementation of the project. One hundred and seventy-four diamonds adorn the insignia entirely made of platinum the base of the central medallion and the overlay with the inscription "Victory" under the enamel are made of gold. All the overlay details&mdashimages of the Kremlin wall, the mausoleum, oak and laurel branches, inlaid with small diamonds&mdashare made of gilded platinum. Silver is used just for fixing elements on the backside of the decoration.
The Order "Victory" is the only Soviet award, which was produced not at the Mint, but the Moscow Jewelry and Watch Factory, famous for its masters.
The highest military award of the Soviet Union, created by artist Alexander Kuznetsov, is the rarest in the world. It was only for twenty times that the order was bestowed: it was awarded to seventeen recipients&mdashtwice to three of them, and once was deprived posthumously.
Parasztcsaládban született Moszkvától északkeletre a Jaroszlavli kormányzóságban, Andronyiki faluban. Az első világháború kezdetén besorozták katonának, majd még 1914-ben zászlóstanfolyamot végzett, és 1915-től harcolt a fronton. A háborút törzsszázadosként fejezte be. 1917-ben a polgári forradalom után ezredbizottsági titkár, majd elnök lett egy határőrezrednél. 1918 augusztusától járási katonai vezetőként, majd a polgárháború alatt a vörösök oldalán a karéliai fronton, később az északi és nyugati fronton is szolgált. Jó szervezőkészségének köszönhetően hadosztálytörzsfőnök lett a 3. hadseregben. Ekkor kitüntették a polgárháborúban tanúsított személyes bátorságáért a Vörös Zászló érdemrenddel.
A két világháború között hadosztály, majd hadtesttörzsfőnök volt, eközben végezte el a Frunze Katonai Akadémiát. 1937-ben hadosztályparancsnok, majd 1938 nyarán a Kaukázusontúli Katonai Körzet törzsfőnöke lett. A Szovjetunió Kommunista Pártjába 1938-ban lépett be.
A második világháború kezdetén a Kaukázusontúli, a Kaukázusi illetve Krími Frontnál fronttörzsfőnöki beosztásban szolgált, majd 1942 júniusától parancsnoknak nevezték ki az 57. hadsereghez. Itt a sztálingrádi csatában szerzett érdemeket. Később a 68. hadsereget vezette, majd 1943 márciusában frontparancsnokként tevékenykedett, ahol először a Déli (1943 októberéig), majd a 4. Ukrán, később a háború végéig a 3. Ukrán Front parancsnoka volt. Részt vett a Donyec-medence majd a Krím felszabadításában, majd magasabb egységével és a 2. Ukrán Fronttal közösen a kulcsfontosságú a iași–kisinyovi hadműveleteket irányította, aminek köszönhetően a szovjet csapatok megkezdhették a Balkánon előrenyomulásukat. Bulgária és Jugoszlávia felszabadításában is tevékenyen részt vett.
1944. november végén a 3. Ukrán Front előrenyomult Magyarországra és nyugatról bekapcsolódott Budapest bekerítésébe úgy, hogy a Duna jobb partján közelítette meg a magyar főváros körül kialakított védelmi vonalakat. Sikeresen verte vissza a már bekerített Wehrmacht és a velük szövetséges magyar erők felmentésére érkező német ellentámadást. Budapest ostroma után a 3. Ukrán Front képezte a fő csapásmérő erejét a Bécs elfoglalására irányuló támadó hadműveletekben részt vevő szovjet haderő-összpontosításnak.
1944-ben előléptették a Szovjetunió marsallja rangra. A háború során 34 alkalommal hirdették ki a legfelsőbb főparancsnok parancsaiban az általa vezetett alakulatok sikereit.
A háború végétől a Déli Hadseregcsoport vezetésével bízták meg, majd 1947-től a Kaukázusontúli Katonai Körzet parancsnoki teendőit látta el.
1949. október 17-én halt meg, hamvait a Kreml falában helyezték el.
1965 májusában kapta meg a Szovjetunió Hőse kitüntetést, két Lenin-renddel, három Vörös Zászló érdemrenddel, két Szuvorov-renddel tüntették ki, megkapta a Győzelem-rendet, a Kutuzov-rendet, és a Vörös Csillag Érdemrendet. Magyarországon megkapta a Magyar Szabadság Érdemrend ezüst fokozatát.
A Szovjetunióban egy gépesített lövészhadosztályt és egy tüzértiszti főiskolát neveztek el róla. Bulgáriában 1990-ig város viselte a nevét (ma Dobrics).
Magyarországon a budapesti Vámház körutat nevezték 1990-ig Tolbuhin körútnak és a pártállami időkben más magyar településeken is neveztek el utcákat róla.
Honours and awards Fyodor Tolbukhin_section_2
- (7 May 1965, posthumously) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_0 (№ 9–26 April 1945) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_1
- Two Orders of Lenin (incl. 19 March 1944, 21 February 1945) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_2 , three times (18 October 1922, 3 November 1944) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_3 , 1st class, twice (28 January 1943, 16 May 1944) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_4 , 1st class (17 September 1943) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_5 (22 February 1938) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_6 , 3rd class Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_7 , 3rd class Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_8 (Yugoslavia, 31 May 1945) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_9 (1979, posthumous) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_10 (Bulgaria) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_11 (Bulgaria) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_12
- Order of the "Hungarian freedom" Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_13
- Grand Cross of the Order of "The Republic of Hungary" Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_14
- Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour (France) Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_15
- Honorary Citizen of Sofia and Belgrade Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_16 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_17 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_18 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_19 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_20 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_21 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_22 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_23 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_24 Fyodor Tolbukhin_item_0_25
Memorials Fyodor Tolbukhin_section_3
The Bulgarian city of Dobrich was renamed Tolbukhin, a name it held until the fall of communism in 1989. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_32
A Prospect (street) in Odessa holds his name. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_33
One of the main streets in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, was named Marshal Tolbukhin Street (in Serbian: Улица маршала Толбухина / Ulica maršala Tolbuhina). Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_34
The street was originally named Макензијева / Makenzijeva, after Scottish missionary Francis Mackenzie who purchased and developed this part of the city in the late 19th century. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_35
After the fall of Communism in Serbia and democratic changes in 2000, the name of the street was reverted to its original name. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_36
Instead, Goce Delčeva Street, in the new section of the city (New Belgrade) was renamed Boulevard of Marshal Tolbukhin (Булевар маршала Толбухина / Bulevar maršala Tolbuhina) in 2016. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_37
Budapest, the capital of Hungary also had one of its streets named after Tolbukhin, as he was one of the major Soviet commanders in the Hungarian war theatre. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_38
The previous Mészáros utca (Butchers' Street) was renamed Vámház körút (Custom House Boulevard) during the (re)construction of the area in 1875. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_39
The road was renamed after the Tsar of Bulgaria, Ferdinand in 1915, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the First World War. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_40
In 1919 the road got back its old name, Vámház körút, which it bore until 1942, when it was once more renamed, this time after son of Regent of Hungary, Admiral Miklós Horthy, István Horthy. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_41
In 1945, the road was named after Marshal Tolbukhin (Tolbuhin Boulevard), and it held this name until 1990 with the fall of communism. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_42
A Monument to Fyodor Tolbukhin was installed in 1960 in Moscow in the square on Samotychnaya Street. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_43
The authors of the monument are the sculptor L. E. Kerbel and the architect G. A. Zakharov. Fyodor Tolbukhin_sentence_44