USS Boggs (DD-136) Communications Room

USS Boggs (DD-136) Communications Room

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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.

Sam Rayburn

Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn (January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961) was an American politician who served as the 43rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He was a three-time House Speaker, former House Majority Leader, two-time House Minority Leader, and a 24-term congressman, representing Texas's 4th congressional district as a Democrat from 1913 to 1961. He holds the record for the longest tenure as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving for over 17 years (among his three separate stints).

Born in Roane County, Tennessee, Rayburn moved with his family to Windom, Texas, in 1887. After a period as a school teacher, Rayburn won election to the Texas House of Representatives and graduated from the University of Texas School of Law. He won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1912 and continually won re-election until his death in 1961, serving 25 terms all told. Rayburn was a protege of John Nance Garner and a mentor to Lyndon B. Johnson.

Rayburn was elected House Majority Leader in 1937 and was elevated to the position of Speaker of the House after the death of William B. Bankhead. He led the House Democrats from 1940 to 1961, and served as Speaker of the House from 1940 to 1947, 1949 to 1953, and 1955 to 1961. Rayburn also served twice as House Minority Leader (1947 to 1949 and 1953 to 1955) during periods of Republican House control. He preferred to work quietly in the background and successfully used his power of persuasion and charisma to get his bills passed due to having to navigate the post-Joseph Cannon era when each individual committee chairman had immense power in the House.

Along with Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson, Rayburn refused to sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto and helped shepherd to passage the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960, the first civil rights bills passed by the U.S. Congress since the Reconstruction Era (1863–1877). Rayburn was also influential in the construction of U.S. Route 66. He served as Speaker until his death in 1961, and was succeeded by John W. McCormack.


Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant, a tanner and merchant, and Hannah Simpson Grant. [1] His ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. [2] Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War, and his grandfather, Noah, served in the American Revolution at Bunker Hill. [3] Afterward, Noah settled in Pennsylvania and married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish pioneer. [4] Their son Jesse (Ulysses's father) was a Whig Party supporter and a fervent abolitionist. [5] Jesse Grant moved to Point Pleasant in 1820 and found work as a foreman in a tannery. [6] He soon met his future wife, Hannah, and the two were married on June 24, 1821. [7] Hannah descended from Presbyterian immigrants from Ballygawley in County Tyrone, Ireland. [8] [9] Ten months after she was married, Hannah gave birth to Ulysses, her and Jesse's first child. [10] The boy's name, Ulysses, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. To honor his father-in-law, Jesse declared the boy named Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses. [11] [b]

In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, Ohio, where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Clara, Orvil, Jennie, and Mary. [13] At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and later in two private schools. [14] In the winter of 1836–1837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary, and in the autumn of 1838, he attended John Rankin's academy. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to ride and manage horses. [15] Grant disliked the tannery, so his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people. [16] Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist parents. [17] [c] For the rest of his life, he prayed privately and never officially joined any denomination. [19] To others, including his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic. [20] He inherited some of Hannah's Methodist piety and quiet nature. [21] Grant was largely apolitical before the war but wrote, "If I had ever had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs. I was raised in that school." [22]

West Point and first assignment

Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L. Hamer requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, New York. Despite political differences with Jesse Root Grant, Hamer, a Democrat, nominated his 17-year-old son to West Point in spring 1839. [23] Grant was accepted on July 1, although he doubted his academic abilities. [24] Hamer, unfamiliar with Grant, submitted an incorrect name to West Point. On September 14 Grant was enlisted Cadet "U.S. Grant" at the national academy. [25] [d] His nickname at West Point became "Sam" among army colleagues since the initials "U.S." also stood for "Uncle Sam". [29] [e]

Initially, Grant was indifferent to military life, but within a year he reexamined his desire to leave the academy and later wrote that "on the whole I like this place very much". [31] While at the Academy, his greatest interest was horses, and he earned a reputation as the "most proficient" horseman. [32] During the graduation ceremony, while riding York, a large and powerful horse that only Grant could manage, he set a high-jump record that stood for 25 years. [33] [f] Seeking relief from military routine, he studied under Romantic artist Robert Walter Weir, producing nine surviving artworks. [35] He spent more time reading books from the library than his academic texts, including works by James Fenimore Cooper and others. [36] On Sundays, cadets were required to march to and attend services at the academy's church, a requirement that Grant disliked. [37] Quiet by nature, Grant established a few intimate friends among fellow cadets, including Frederick Tracy Dent and James Longstreet. He was inspired both by the Commandant, Captain Charles F. Smith and by General Winfield Scott, who visited the academy to review the cadets. Grant later wrote of the military life, "there is much to dislike, but more to like." [38]

Grant graduated on June 30, 1843, ranked 21st out of 39 in his class and was promoted the next day to the rank brevet second lieutenant. [39] Small for his age at 17, he had entered the academy weighing only 117 pounds (53 kg) at 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) tall upon graduation four years later he had grown to a height of 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m). [40] Grant planned to resign his commission after his four-year term of duty. He would later write to a friend that among the happiest days of his life were the day he left the presidency and the day he left the academy. [41] Despite his excellent horsemanship, he was not assigned to the cavalry, but to the 4th Infantry Regiment. Grant's first assignment took him to the Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri. Lt. Col. Robert C. Buchanan fined Grant wine bottles for Grant's late returns from White Haven. [42] Commanded by Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, the barracks was the nation's largest military base in the West. [43] Grant was happy with his new commander but looked forward to the end of his military service and a possible teaching career. [44]

Marriage and family

In Missouri, Grant visited Dent's family and became engaged to his sister, Julia, in 1844. [44] Four years later on August 22, 1848, they were married at Julia's home in St. Louis. Grant's abolitionist father disapproved of the Dents' owning slaves, and neither of Grant's parents attended the wedding. [45] Grant was flanked by three fellow West Point graduates, all dressed in their blue uniforms, including Longstreet, Julia's cousin. [46] [g] At the end of the month, Julia was warmly received by Grant's family in Bethel, Ohio. [49] They had four children: Frederick, Ulysses Jr. ("Buck"), Ellen ("Nellie"), and Jesse. [50] After the wedding, Grant obtained a two-month extension to his leave and returned to St. Louis when he decided, with a wife to support, that he would remain in the army. [51]

Mexican–American War

After rising tensions with Mexico following the United States annexation of Texas, war broke out in 1846. During the conflict, Grant distinguished himself as a daring and competent soldier. [52] Before the war President John Tyler had ordered Grant's unit to Louisiana as part of the Army of Observation under Major General Zachary Taylor. [53] In September 1846, Tyler's successor, James K. Polk, unable to provoke Mexico into war at Corpus Christi, Texas, ordered Taylor to march 150 miles south to the Rio Grande. Marching south to Fort Texas, to prevent a Mexican siege, Grant experienced combat for the first time on May 8, 1846, at the Battle of Palo Alto. [54]

Grant served as regimental quartermaster, but yearned for a combat role when finally allowed, he led a charge at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. [55] He demonstrated his equestrian ability at the Battle of Monterrey by volunteering to carry a dispatch past snipers, where he hung off the side of his horse, keeping the animal between him and the enemy. Before leaving the city he assured some wounded Americans he would send for help. [56] Polk, wary of Taylor's growing popularity, divided his forces, sending some troops (including Grant's unit) to form a new army under Major General Winfield Scott. [57] Traveling by sea, Scott's army landed at Veracruz and advanced toward Mexico City. [58] The army met the Mexican forces at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec outside Mexico City. [59] For his bravery at Molino del Rey, Grant was brevetted first lieutenant on September 30. [60] At San Cosmé, Grant directed his men to drag a disassembled howitzer into a church steeple, then reassembled it and bombarded nearby Mexican troops. [59] His bravery and initiative earned him his brevet promotion to captain. [61] On September 14, 1847, Scott's army marched into the city Mexico ceded the vast territory, including California, to the U.S. on February 2, 1848. [62]

During the war, Grant established a commendable record, studied the tactics and strategies of Scott and Taylor, and emerged as a seasoned officer, writing in his memoirs that this is how he learned much about military leadership. [63] In retrospect, although he respected Scott, he identified his leadership style with Taylor's. However, Grant also wrote that the Mexican war was morally unjust and that the territorial gains were designed to expand slavery, stating, "I was bitterly opposed to the measure . and to this day, regard the war which resulted as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation." He opined that the Civil War was divine punishment on the U.S. for its aggression against Mexico. [64] During the war, Grant discovered his "moral courage" and began to consider a career in the army. [65]

Historians increasingly have pointed to the importance of Grant's experience as an assistant quartermaster during the war. Although he was initially averse to the position, it prepared Grant in understanding military supply routes, transportation systems, and logistics, particularly with regard to "provisioning a large, mobile army operating in hostile territory," according to biographer Ronald White. [55] Grant came to recognize how wars could be won or lost by crucial factors that lay beyond the tactical battlefield. Serving as assistant quartermaster made Grant a complete soldier, and learning how to supply an entire army gave Grant the training to sustain large armies. [66] [h]

Post-war assignments and resignation

Grant's first post-war assignments took him and Julia to Detroit on November 17, 1848, but he was soon transferred to Madison Barracks, a desolate outpost in upstate New York, in bad need of supplies and repair. After four months, Grant was sent back to his quartermaster job in Detroit. [69] When the discovery of gold in California brought droves of prospectors and settlers to the territory, Grant and the 4th infantry were ordered to reinforce the small garrison there. Grant was charged with bringing the soldiers and a few hundred civilians from New York City to Panama, overland to the Pacific and then north to California. Julia, eight months pregnant with Ulysses Jr., did not accompany him. While Grant was in Panama, a cholera epidemic broke out and claimed the lives of many soldiers, civilians, and children. Grant established and organized a field hospital in Panama City, and moved the worst cases to a hospital barge one mile offshore. [70] When orderlies protested having to attend to the sick, Grant did much of the nursing himself, earning high praise from observers. [71] In August, Grant arrived in San Francisco. His next assignment sent him north to Vancouver Barracks in the Oregon Territory. [72]

Grant tried several business ventures but failed, and in one instance his business partner absconded with $800 of Grant's investment. [73] Concerning local Indians, Grant assured Julia, by letter, they were harmless, and he developed empathy for their plight. [74] Grant witnessed white agents cheating Indians of their supplies, and the devastation of smallpox and measles, transferred by white settlers. [75]

Promoted to captain on August 5, 1853, Grant was assigned to command Company F, 4th Infantry, at the newly constructed Fort Humboldt in California. [76] Grant arrived at Fort Humboldt on January 5, 1854, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan, a martinet officer, with whom Grant had earlier crossed paths at Jefferson Barracks. [77] Separated from his wife and family, Grant began to drink. [78] Colonel Buchanan reprimanded Grant for one drinking episode and told Grant to "resign or reform." Grant told Buchanan he would "resign if I don't reform." [79] On Sunday, Grant was found influenced by alcohol, but not incapacitated, at his company's paytable. [80] Keeping his pledge to Buchanan, Grant resigned, effective July 31, 1854. [81] Buchanan endorsed Grant's letter of resignation but did not submit any report that verified the incident. [82] [i] Grant did not face court-martial, and the War Department said: "Nothing stands against his good name." [88] Grant said years later, "the vice of intemperance (drunkenness) had not a little to do with my decision to resign." [89] With no means of support, Grant returned to St. Louis and reunited with his family, uncertain about his future. [90]

In 1854, at age 32, Grant entered civilian life, without any money-making vocation, to support his growing family. It was the beginning of seven years of financial struggles, poverty, and instability. [91] Grant's father offered him a place in the Galena, Illinois, branch of the family's leather business, but demanded Julia and the children stay in Missouri, with the Dents, or with the Grants in Kentucky. Grant and Julia declined the offer. Grant farmed (for the next four years [92] ), using Julia's slave Dan, on his brother-in-law's property, Wish-ton-wish, near St. Louis. [93] The farm was not successful and to earn an alternate living he sold firewood on St. Louis street corners. [94]

In 1856, the Grants moved to land on Julia's father's farm, and built a home called "Hardscrabble" on Grant's Farm. Julia described the rustic house as an "unattractive cabin", but made the dwelling as homelike as possible with the family's keepsakes and other belongings. [95] Grant's family had little money, clothes, and furniture, but always had enough food. [96] During the Panic of 1857, which devastated Grant as it did many farmers, Grant had to pawn his gold watch in order to buy Christmas gifts for his family. [97] In 1858, Grant rented out Hardscrabble and moved his family to Julia's father's 850-acre plantation. [98] That fall, after suffering from malaria, Grant finally gave up farming. [99]

The same year, Grant acquired a slave from his father-in-law, a thirty-five-year-old man named William Jones. [100] Although Grant was not an abolitionist, he was not considered a "slavery man", and could not bring himself to force a slave to do work. [101] In March 1859, Grant freed William by a manumission deed, potentially worth at least $1,000, when Grant needed the money. [102] [j] Grant moved to St. Louis, taking on a partnership with Julia's cousin Harry Boggs working in the real estate business as a bill collector, again without success and with Julia's prompting ended the partnership. [104] In August, Grant applied for a position as county engineer, believing his education qualified him for the job. He had thirty-five notable recommendations, but the position was given on the basis of political affiliation and Grant was passed over by the Free Soil and Republican county commissioners because he was believed to share his father-in-law's Democratic sentiments. [105] In the 1856 presidential election, Grant cast his first presidential vote for Democrat James Buchanan, later saying he was really voting against Republican John C. Frémont over concern that his anti-slavery position would lead to southern secession and war and because he considered Frémont to be a shameless self-promoter. [106]

In April 1860, Grant and his family moved north to Galena, accepting a position in his father's leather goods business run by his younger brothers Simpson and Orvil. [107] [k] In a few months, Grant paid off his debts. [109] The family attended the local Methodist church and he soon established himself as a reputable citizen of Galena. [110] For the 1860 election, he could not vote because he was not yet a legal resident of Illinois, but he favored Democrat Stephen A. Douglas over the eventual winner, Abraham Lincoln, and Lincoln over the Southern Democrat, John C. Breckinridge. [111] He was torn between his increasingly anti-slavery views and the fact that his wife remained a staunch Democrat. [112]

On April 12, 1861, the American Civil War began when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. [113] The news came as a shock in Galena, and Grant shared his neighbors' concern about the war. [114] On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers. [115] The next day, Grant attended a mass meeting to assess the crisis and encourage recruitment, and a speech by his father's attorney, John Aaron Rawlins, stirred Grant's patriotism. [116] [l] Ready to fight, Grant recalled with satisfaction, "I never went into our leather store again." [117] [m] On April 18, Grant chaired a second recruitment meeting, but turned down a captain's position as commander of the newly-formed militia company, hoping his previous experience would aid him to obtain a more senior military rank. [119]

Early commands

Grant's early efforts to be recommissioned were rejected by Major General George B. McClellan and Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon. On April 29, supported by Congressman Elihu B. Washburne of Illinois, Grant was appointed military aide to Governor Richard Yates and mustered ten regiments into the Illinois militia. On June 14, again aided by Washburne, Grant was promoted to Colonel and put in charge of the unruly 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which he soon restored to good order and discipline. [120] Colonel Grant and his 21st Regiment were transferred to Missouri to dislodge Confederate forces. [121]

On August 5, with Washburne's aid, Grant was appointed Brigadier General of volunteers. [122] Major General John C. Frémont, Union commander of the West, passed over senior generals and appointed Grant commander of the District of Southeastern Missouri. [123] [n] On September 2, Grant arrived at Cairo, Illinois, assumed command by replacing Colonel Oglesby, and set up his headquarters to plan a campaign down the Mississippi, and up the Tennessee, and Cumberland rivers. [125] After the Confederates moved into western Kentucky, taking Columbus, [126] with designs on southern Illinois, Grant, after notifying Frémont, and without waiting further for his reply, strategically advanced on Paducah, Kentucky, taking it without a fight on September 6. [127] Having understood the importance to Lincoln about Kentucky's neutrality, Grant assured its citizens, "I have come among you not as your enemy, but as your friend." [128] On November 1, Frémont ordered Grant to "make demonstrations" against the Confederates on both sides of the Mississippi, but prohibited him from attacking the enemy. [129]

Belmont (1861), Forts Henry and Donelson (1862)

On November 2, 1861, Lincoln removed Frémont from command, freeing Grant to attack Confederate soldiers encamped in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. [129] On November 5, Grant, along with Brigadier General John A. McClernand, landed 2,500 men at Hunter's Point, and on November 7 engaged the Confederates at the Battle of Belmont. [130] The Union army took the camp, but the reinforced Confederates under Brigadier Generals Frank Cheatham and Gideon J. Pillow forced a chaotic Union retreat. [131] Grant had wanted to destroy Confederate strongholds at both Belmont, Missouri and Columbus, Kentucky, but was not given enough troops and was only able to disrupt their positions. Grant's troops fought their way back to their Union boats and escaped back to Cairo under fire from the fortified stronghold at Columbus. [132] Although Grant and his army retreated, the battle gave his volunteers much-needed confidence and experience. [133] It also showed Lincoln that Grant was a general willing to fight. [134]

Columbus blocked Union access to the lower Mississippi. Grant and General James B. McPherson planned to bypass Columbus and with a force of 25,000 troops, move against Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. They would then march ten miles east to Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, with the aid of gunboats, opening both rivers and allowing the Union access further south. Grant presented his plan to Henry Halleck, his new commander in the newly created Department of Missouri. [135] Halleck was considering the same strategy, but rebuffed Grant, believing he needed twice the number of troops. However, after Halleck telegraphed and consulted McClellan about the plan, he finally agreed on the condition that the attack would be conducted in close cooperation with the navy Flag Officer, Andrew H. Foote. [136] Foote's gunboats bombarded Fort Henry, leading to its surrender on February 6, 1862, before Grant's infantry even arrived. [137]

Grant then ordered an immediate assault on Fort Donelson, which dominated the Cumberland River. Fort Donelson, unlike Fort Henry, had a force equal to Grant's army. Unaware of the garrison's strength, Grant, McClernand, and Smith positioned their divisions around the fort. The next day McClernand and Smith independently launched probing attacks on apparent weak spots but were forced to retreat by the Confederates. On February 14, Foote's gunboats began bombarding the fort, only to be repulsed by its heavy guns. Seizing the initiative, the next day, Pillow fiercely attacked and routed one of Grant's divisions, McClernand's. Union reinforcements arrived, giving Grant a total force of over 40,000 men. Grant was with Foote, four miles away when the Confederates attacked. Hearing the battle noise, Grant rode back and rallied his troop commanders, riding over seven miles of freezing roads and trenches, exchanging reports. When Grant blocked the Nashville Road, the Confederates retreated back into Fort Donelson. [138] On February 16, Foote resumed his bombardment, which signaled a general attack. Confederate generals John B. Floyd and Pillow fled, leaving the fort in command of Simon Bolivar Buckner, who submitted to Grant's demand for "unconditional and immediate surrender". [139]

Grant had won the first major victory for the Union, capturing Floyd's entire rebel army of more than 12,000. Halleck was angry that Grant had acted without his authorization and complained to McClellan, accusing Grant of "neglect and inefficiency". On March 3, Halleck sent a telegram to Washington complaining that he had no communication with Grant for a week. Three days later, Halleck followed up with a postscript claiming "word has just reached me that . Grant has resumed his bad habits (of drinking)." [140] Lincoln, regardless, promoted Grant to major general of volunteers and the Northern press treated Grant as a hero. Playing off his initials, they took to calling him "Unconditional Surrender Grant". [141]

Shiloh (1862) and aftermath

With great armies now massing, it was widely thought in the North that another western battle might end the war. [142] Grant, reinstated by Halleck at the urging of Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, left Fort Henry and traveled by boat up the Tennessee River to rejoin his army with orders to advance with the Army of the Tennessee into Tennessee. Grant's main army was located at Pittsburg Landing, while 40,000 Confederate troops converged at Corinth, Mississippi. [143] Brigadier General William Tecumseh Sherman assured Grant that his green troops were ready for an attack. Grant agreed and wired Halleck with their assessment. [144] Grant wanted to attack the Confederates at Corinth, but Halleck ordered him not to attack until Major General Don Carlos Buell arrived with his division of 25,000. [145] Meanwhile, Grant prepared for an attack on the Confederate army of roughly equal strength. Instead of preparing defensive fortifications between the Tennessee River and Owl Creek, [o] and clearing fields of fire, they spent most of their time drilling the largely inexperienced troops while Sherman dismissed reports of nearby Confederates. [146]

Union inaction created the opportunity for the Confederates to attack first before Buell arrived. [147] On the morning of April 6, 1862, Grant's troops were taken by surprise when the Confederates, led by Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, struck first "like an Alpine avalanche" near Shiloh church, attacking five divisions of Grant's army and forcing a confused retreat toward the Tennessee River. [148] Johnston was killed and command fell upon Beauregard. [149] One Union line held the Confederate attack off for several hours at a place later called the "Hornet's Nest", giving Grant time to assemble artillery and 20,000 troops near Pittsburg Landing. [150] The Confederates finally broke through the Hornet's Nest to capture a Union division, but "Grant's Last Line" held the landing, while the exhausted Confederates, lacking reinforcements, halted their advance. [151] The day's fighting had been costly, with thousands of casualties. That evening, heavy rain set in. Sherman found Grant standing alone under a tree in the rain. "Well, Grant, we've had the devil's own day of it, haven't we?" Sherman said. "Yes," replied Grant. "Lick 'em tomorrow, though." [152]

Bolstered by 18,000 fresh troops from the divisions of Major Generals Buell and Lew Wallace, Grant counterattacked at dawn the next day and regained the field, forcing the disorganized and demoralized rebels to retreat back to Corinth. [153] Halleck ordered Grant not to advance more than one day's march from Pittsburg Landing, stopping the pursuit of the Confederate Army. [154] Although Grant had won the battle the situation was little changed, with the Union in possession of Pittsburg Landing and the Confederates once again holed up in Corinth. [155] Grant, now realizing that the South was determined to fight and that the war would not be won with one battle, would later write, "Then, indeed, I gave up all idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest." [156]

Shiloh was the costliest battle in American history to that point and the staggering 23,746 total casualties stunned the nation. [157] Briefly hailed a hero for routing the Confederates, Grant was soon mired in controversy. [158] The Northern press castigated Grant for shockingly high casualties, and accused him of drunkenness during the battle, contrary to the accounts of officers and others with him at the time. [159] [p] Discouraged, Grant considered resigning but Sherman convinced him to stay. [160] Lincoln dismissed Grant's critics, saying "I can't spare this man he fights." [161] However, Grant's victory at Shiloh ended any chance for the Confederates to prevail in the Mississippi valley or regain its strategic advantage in the West. [162]

Halleck arrived from St. Louis on April 11, took command, and assembled a combined army of about 120,000 men. On April 29, he relieved Grant of field command and replaced him with Major General George Henry Thomas. Halleck slowly marched his army to take Corinth, entrenching each night. [163] Meanwhile, Beauregard pretended to be reinforcing, sent "deserters" to the Union Army with that story, and moved his army out during the night, to Halleck's surprise when he finally arrived at Corinth on May 30. [164]

Halleck divided his combined army and reinstated Grant as field commander of the Army of the Tennessee on July 11. [165]

Later that year, on September 19, Grant's army defeated Confederates at the Battle of Iuka, then successfully defended Corinth, inflicting heavy casualties. [166] On October 25, Grant assumed command of the District of the Tennessee. [167] In November, after Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Grant ordered units under his command to incorporate former slaves into the Union Army, giving them clothes, shelter, and wages for their services. [168] Grant held western Tennessee with almost 40,000 men. [169]

Vicksburg campaign (1862–1863)

The Union capture of Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi, was vital, and would split the Confederacy in two. [170] Lincoln, however, appointed McClernand for the job, rather than Grant or Sherman. [171] Halleck, who retained power over troop displacement, ordered McClernand to Memphis, and placed him and his troops under Grant's authority. [172] On November 13, 1862, Grant captured Holly Springs and advanced to Corinth. [173] Grant's plan was to march south to Jackson, and attack Vicksburg overland, while Sherman would attack Vicksburg from Chickasaw Bayou. [174] However, Confederate cavalry raids on December 11 and 20, 1862, broke Union communications and recaptured Holly Springs, preventing Grant and Sherman from converging on Vicksburg. [175] Grant observed sabotage by civilians who had feigned loyalty and complained: "Guerrillas are hovering around in every direction." [176] On December 29, a Confederate army led by Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton repulsed Sherman's direct approach ascending the bluffs to Vicksburg at Chickasaw Bayou. [177] McClernand reached Sherman's army, assumed command, and independently of Grant led a campaign that captured Confederate Fort Hindman. [178]

Contraband fugitive African-American slaves poured into Grant's district, whom he sent north to Cairo, to be integrated into white society as domestic servants in Chicago. However, Lincoln ended this move when Illinois political leaders complained. [179] On his own initiative, Grant set up a pragmatic program and hired a young Presbyterian Chaplain John Eaton to administer slave refuge work camps. [180] Compensated contraband freed slaves would be used to pick cotton that would be shipped north and sent to aid the Union war effort. Lincoln approved and Grant's camp program was successful. [181] Grant also worked freed black labor on the bypass canal and other points on the river, incorporating them into the Union Army and Navy. [182]

Grant's war responsibilities included combating an illegal Northern cotton trade and civilian obstruction. [183] [184] Smuggling of cotton was rampant, while the price of cotton skyrocketed. [185] Grant believed the smuggling funded the Confederacy and provided them with military intelligence, while Union soldiers were dying in the fields. [186] He had received numerous dispatches with complaints about Jewish speculators in his district. [187] He also feared the trading corrupted many of his officers who were also eager to make a profit on a bale of cotton, while the majority of those involved in illegal trading was not Jewish. [188] Outraged that gold paid for southern cotton, Grant required two permits, one from the Treasury and one from the Union Army, to purchase cotton. [185] [q]

On December 17, 1862, Grant issued a controversial General Order No. 11, expelling "Jews, as a class", from his Union Army military district. [189] [184] [r] The order was fully enforced at Holly Springs (December 17) and Paducah (December 28). Confederate General Van Dorn's raid on Holly Springs (December 20), prevented many Jewish people from potential expulsion. After complaints, Lincoln rescinded the order on January 3, 1863. Grant finally stopped the order within three weeks on January 17. [191] [s]

On January 29, 1863, Grant assumed overall command. Eventually, he attempted to advance his army through water-logged terrain to bypass Vicksburg's guns. [197] The plan of attacking Vicksburg from downriver carried great risk because upon crossing the Mississippi River, his army would be beyond the reach of most of its supply lines. [198] On April 16, Grant ordered Admiral David Dixon Porter's gunboats south under fire from the Vicksburg batteries to meet up with troops who had marched south down the west side of the river. [199] Grant ordered diversionary battles, confusing Pemberton and allowing Grant's army to move east across the Mississippi, landing troops at Bruinsburg. [200] Grant's army captured Jackson, the state capital. Advancing west, Grant defeated Pemberton's army at the Battle of Champion Hill on May 16, forcing their retreat into Vicksburg. [201] After Grant's men assaulted the entrenchments twice, suffering severe losses, they settled in for a siege lasting seven weeks. During quiet periods of the campaign, Grant would take to drinking on occasion. [202] The personal rivalry between McClernand and Grant continued until Grant removed him from command when he contravened Grant by publishing an order without permission. [203] Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg to Grant on July 4, 1863. [204]

Vicksburg's fall gave Union forces control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy. By that time, Grant's political sympathies fully coincided with the Radical Republicans' aggressive prosecution of the war and emancipation of the slaves. [205] The success at Vicksburg was a morale boost for the Union war effort. [203] When Stanton suggested Grant be brought back east to run the Army of the Potomac, Grant demurred, writing that he knew the geography and resources of the West better and he did not want to upset the chain of command in the East. [206]

Chattanooga (1863) and promotion

Lincoln promoted Grant to major general in the regular army (as opposed to the volunteers) and assigned him command of the newly formed Division of the Mississippi on October 16, 1863, comprising the Armies of the Ohio, the Tennessee, and the Cumberland. [207] After the Battle of Chickamauga, the Army of the Cumberland retreated into Chattanooga where they were partially besieged. [208] Grant arrived in Chattanooga on horseback, after a journey by boat from Vicksburg to Cairo, and then by train to Bridgeport, Alabama. Plans to resupply the city and break the partial siege had already been set on foot before his arrival. Forces commanded by Major General Joseph Hooker, which had been sent from the Army of the Potomac, approached from the west and linked up with other units moving east from inside the city, capturing Brown's Ferry and opening a supply line to the railroad at Bridgeport. [209]

Grant planned to have Sherman's Army of the Tennessee, assisted by the Army of the Cumberland, assault the northern end of Missionary Ridge, preparatory to rolling down it on the enemy's right flank. On November 23, Major General George Henry Thomas surprised the enemy in open daylight, advancing the Union lines and taking Orchard Knob, between Chattanooga and the ridge. The next day, Sherman failed to achieve his mission of getting atop Missionary Ridge, which was the key to Grant's plan of battle. Hooker's forces took Lookout Mountain using an ingenious maneuver to flank the enemy, in unexpected success. [210] On the 25th, Grant ordered Major General George Henry Thomas to advance to the rifle-pits at the case of Missionary in an effort to help Sherman, after Sherman's army failed to take Missionary Ridge from the northeast. [211] Four divisions of the Army of the Cumberland, with the center two led by Major General Philip Sheridan and Brigadier General Thomas J. Wood, chased the Confederates out of the rifle-pits at the base and, against orders, continued the charge up the 45-degree slope and captured the Confederate entrenchments along the crest, forcing a hurried retreat. [212] The decisive battle gave the Union control of Tennessee and opened Georgia, the Confederate heartland, to Union invasion. [213] Grant was given an enormous thoroughbred horse, Cincinnati, by a thankful admirer in St. Louis. [214]

On March 2, 1864, Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general, giving him command of all Union Armies. [215] Grant's new rank had only previously been held by George Washington. [216] Grant arrived in Washington on March 8, and he was formally commissioned by Lincoln the next day at a Cabinet meeting. [217] Grant developed a good working relationship with Lincoln, who allowed Grant to devise his own strategy. [218] Grant established his headquarters with General George Meade's Army of the Potomac in Culpeper, north-west of Richmond, and met weekly with Lincoln and Stanton in Washington. [219] [t] After protest from Halleck, Grant scrapped a risky invasion plan of North Carolina, and adopted a plan of five coordinated Union offensives on five fronts, so Confederate armies could not shift troops along interior lines. [221] Grant and Meade would make a direct frontal attack on Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, while Sherman—now chief of the western armies—was to destroy Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee and take Atlanta. [222] Major General Benjamin Butler would advance on Lee from the southeast, up the James River, while Major General Nathaniel Banks would capture Mobile. [223] Major General Franz Sigel was to capture granaries and rail lines in the fertile Shenandoah Valley. [224]

Grant now commanded in total 533,000 battle-ready troops spread out over an eighteen-mile front, while the Confederates had lost many officers in battle and had great difficulty finding replacements. [225] He was popular, and there was talk that a Union victory early in the year could lead to his candidacy for the presidency. Grant was aware of the rumors, but had ruled out a political candidacy the possibility would soon vanish with delays on the battlefield. [226]

Overland Campaign (1864)

The Overland Campaign was a series of brutal battles fought in Virginia for seven weeks during May and June 1864. [227] Sigel's and Butler's efforts failed, and Grant was left alone to fight Lee. [228] On the morning of Wednesday, May 4, Grant dressed in full uniform, sword at his side, led the army out from his headquarters at Culpeper towards Germanna Ford. [229] They crossed the Rapidan unopposed, while supplies were transported on four pontoon bridges. [230] On May 5, the Union army attacked Lee in the Wilderness, a three-day battle with estimated casualties of 17,666 Union and 11,125 Confederate. [231]

Rather than retreat, Grant flanked Lee's army to the southeast and attempted to wedge his forces between Lee and Richmond at Spotsylvania Court House. [232] Lee's army got to Spotsylvania first and a costly battle ensued, lasting thirteen days, with heavy casualties. [233] On May 12, Grant attempted to break through Lee's Muleshoe salient guarded by Confederate artillery, resulting in one of the bloodiest assaults of the Civil War, known as the Bloody Angle. [234] Unable to break Lee's lines, Grant again flanked the rebels to the southeast, meeting at North Anna, where a battle lasted three days. [235]

Grant believed breaking through Lee's lines at its weakest point, Cold Harbor, a vital road hub that linked to Richmond, would mean the destruction of Lee's army, the capture of Richmond, and a quick end to the rebellion. [236] Grant already had two corps in position at Cold Harbor with Hancock's corps on the way. [237] The recent bloody Wilderness campaign had severely diminished Confederate morale and hence Grant was now willing to advance on Lee's army once again. [238]

Lee's lines were extended north and east of Richmond and Petersburg for approximately ten miles, but there were several points where there were no fortifications built yet, and Cold Harbor was one of them. On June 1 and 2 both Grant and Lee were still waiting for reinforcements to arrive. Hancock's men had marched all night and arrived too exhausted for an immediate attack that morning. Grant agreed to let the men rest and postponed the attack until 5 p.m., and then again until 4:30 a.m. on June 3. However, Grant and Meade did not give specific orders for the attack, leaving it up to the corps commanders to decide where they would coordinate and attack the Confederate lines, as no senior commander had yet reconnoitered the latest Confederate developments. Grant had not yet learned that overnight Lee had hastily constructed entrenchments to thwart any breach attempt at Cold Harbor. [239] Grant had put off making an attack twice and was anxious to make his move before the rest of Lee's army arrived. On the morning of June 3, the third day of the thirteen-day battle, with a force of more than 100,000 men, against Lee's 59,000, Grant attacked not realizing that Lee's army was now well entrenched, much of it obscured by trees and bushes. [240] Grant's army suffered 12,000–14,000 casualties, while Lee's army suffered 3,000–5,000 casualties, [u] but Lee was less able to replace them. [241]

The unprecedented number of casualties was shocking by all accounts and heightened anti-war sentiment in the North. After the battle Grant wanted to appeal to Lee under the white flag for each side to gather up their wounded, most of them Union soldiers, but Lee insisted that a total truce be enacted and while they were deliberating all but a few of the wounded died in the field. [242] Without giving an apology for the disastrous defeat in his official military report, Grant confided in his staff after the battle and years later wrote in his memoirs that he "regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. I might say the same thing of the assault . at Vicksburg." [243]

Siege of Petersburg (1864–1865)

Undetected by Lee, Grant moved his army south of the James River, freed Butler from the Bermuda Hundred, and advanced toward Petersburg, Virginia's central railroad hub. [244] Beauregard defended Petersburg, and Lee's veteran reinforcements arrived on June 18, resulting in a nine-month siege. Northern resentment grew. Sheridan was assigned command of the Union Army of the Shenandoah and Grant directed him to "follow the enemy to their death" in the Shenandoah Valley. When Sheridan suffered attacks by John S. Mosby's irregular Confederate cavalry, Grant recommended rounding up their families for imprisonment at Fort McHenry. [245] After Grant's abortive attempt to capture Petersburg, Lincoln supported Grant in his decision to continue and visited Grant's headquarters at City Point on June 21 to assess the state of the army and meet with Grant and Admiral Porter. By the time Lincoln departed his appreciation for Grant had grown. [246]

To strike at Lee in a timely capacity Grant was forced to use what resources were immediately available, and they were diminished by the day. Grant had to commit badly needed troops to check Confederate General Jubal Early's raids in the Shenandoah Valley and who was getting dangerously close to the Potomac River, and Washington. [247] By late July, at Petersburg, Grant reluctantly approved a plan to blow up part of the enemy trenches from a tunnel filled with many tons of gunpowder. The massive explosion created a crater, 170 feet across and 30 feet deep, killing an entire Confederate regiment in an instant. [248] [v] The poorly led Union troops under Major General Burnside and Brigadier General Ledlie, rather than encircling the crater, rushed forward and poured directly into it, which was widely deemed a mistake. Recovering from the surprise, Confederates, led by Major General William Mahone, [249] surrounded the crater and easily picked off Union troops within it. The Union's 3,500 casualties outnumbered the Confederates' by three-to-one. The battle marked the first time that Union-colored troops, who endured a large proportion of the casualties, engaged in any major battle in the east. [250] Grant admitted that the overall mining tactic had been a "stupendous failure". [251]

Grant would later meet with Lincoln and testify at a court of inquiry [252] against Generals Burnside and Ledlie for their incompetence. In his memoirs he blamed both of them for that disastrous Union defeat. [253] [254] Rather than fight Lee in a full-frontal attack as he had done at Cold Harbor, Grant continued to force Lee to extend his defenses south and west of Petersburg, better allowing him to capture essential railroad links. [247]

Union forces soon captured Mobile Bay and Atlanta and now controlled the Shenandoah Valley, ensuring Lincoln's reelection in November. [255] Sherman convinced Grant and Lincoln to send his army to march on Savannah. [256] Sherman cut a 60-mile path of destruction unopposed, reached the Atlantic Ocean, and captured Savannah on December 22. [257] On December 16, after much prodding by Grant, the Union Army under Thomas smashed John Bell Hood's Confederate Army at Nashville. [258] These campaigns left Lee's forces at Petersburg as the only significant obstacle remaining to Union victory. [259]

By March 1865, Grant had severely weakened Lee's strength, having extended his lines to 35 miles. [260] Lee's troops deserted by the thousands due to hunger and the strains of trench warfare. [261] Grant, Sherman, Porter, and Lincoln held a conference to discuss the surrender of Confederate armies and Reconstruction of the South on March 28. [262]

Appomattox campaign (1865), and victory

On April 2, Grant ordered a general assault on Lee's entrenched forces. Union troops took Petersburg and captured Richmond the next day. [263] Lee and part of his army broke free and attempted to link up with the remnants of Joseph E. Johnston's defeated army, but Sheridan's cavalry stopped the two armies from converging, cutting them off from their supply trains. [264] Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock to carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee's choosing. [265] Grant immediately rode west, bypassing Lee's army, to join Sheridan who had captured Appomattox Station, blocking Lee's escape route. On his way, Grant received a letter sent by Lee informing him that he was ready to surrender. [266]

On April 9, Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court House. [267] Upon receiving Lee's dispatch about the proposed meeting Grant had been jubilant. Although Grant felt depressed at the fall of "a foe who had fought so long and valiantly," he believed the Southern cause was "one of the worst for which a people ever fought." [268] After briefly discussing their days of old in Mexico, Grant wrote out the terms of surrender. Men and officers were to be paroled, but in addition, there was amnesty: "Each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by U.S. authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside." Lee expressed satisfaction and accepted Grant's terms. At Lee's request, Grant also allowed them to keep their horses. [269] [270] Grant ordered his troops to stop all celebration, saying the "war is over the rebels are our countrymen again." [271] Johnston's Tennessee army surrendered on April 26, 1865, Richard Taylor's Alabama army on May 4, and Kirby Smith's Texas army on May 26, ending the war. [272]

Lincoln's assassination

On April 14, 1865, five days after Grant's victory at Appomattox, he attended a cabinet meeting in Washington. Lincoln invited him and his wife to Ford's Theater but they declined, for upon his wife Julia's urging, they had plans to travel to Philadelphia. In a conspiracy that also targeted top cabinet members in one last effort to topple the Union, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at the theater and died the next morning. [273] Many, including Grant himself, thought that he had been a target in the plot, and during the subsequent trial, the government tried to prove that Grant had been stalked by Booth's conspirator Michael O'Laughlen. [274] Stanton notified Grant of the President's death and summoned him back to Washington. Vice President Andrew Johnson was sworn in as president on April 15. Attending Lincoln's funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly he later said Lincoln was "the greatest man I have ever known". [275] Grant was determined to work with Johnson, while he privately expressed "every reason to hope" in the new president's ability to run the government "in its old channel". [276]

At the war's end, Grant remained commander of the army, with duties that included dealing with Maximilian and French troops in Mexico, enforcement of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, and supervision of Indian wars on the western Plains. [277] After the Grand Review of the Armies, Lee and his generals were indicted for treason in Virginia. Johnson demanded they be put on trial, but Grant insisted that they should not be tried, citing his Appomatox amnesty. Johnson backed down, so charges against Lee were dropped. [278] [279] Grant secured a house for his family in Georgetown Heights in 1865 but instructed Elihu Washburne that for political purposes his legal residence remained in Galena, Illinois. [280] That same year, Grant spoke at Cooper Union in New York in support of Johnson's presidency. Further travels that summer took the Grants to Albany, New York, back to Galena, and throughout Illinois and Ohio, with enthusiastic receptions. [281] On July 25, 1866, Congress promoted Grant to the newly created rank of General of the Army of the United States. [282]

Tour of the South

President Johnson's Reconstruction policy included a speedy return of the former Confederates to Congress, reinstate whites to office in the South, and relegate blacks to second-class citizenship. [283] On November 27, 1865, General Grant left Washington, sent by Johnson on a fact-finding mission to the South, to counter a pending less favorable report by Senator Carl Schurz. [284] [w] Grant recommended continuation of the Freedmen's Bureau, which Johnson opposed, but advised against using black troops, which he believed encouraged an alternative to farm labor. [286] Grant did not believe the people of the South were ready for self-rule, and that both whites and blacks in the South required protection by the federal government. Concerned that the war led to diminished respect for civil authorities, Grant continued using the Army to maintain order. [287] Grant's report on the South, which he later recanted, sympathized with Johnson's conservative Reconstruction policies. [288] Although Grant desired former Confederates be returned to Congress, he advocated eventual black citizenship. On December 19, the day after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment was announced in the Senate, Johnson's response used Grant's report, read aloud to the Senate, to undermine Schurz's final report and Radical opposition to Johnson's policies. [289]

Break from Johnson

Grant was initially optimistic about Johnson, saying he was satisfied the nation had "nothing to fear" from the Johnson administration. [290] Despite differing styles, Grant got along cordially with Johnson and attended cabinet meetings concerning Reconstruction. [290] By February 1866, the relationship began to break down. [291] Johnson opposed Grant's closure of the Richmond Examiner for disloyal editorials and his enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, passed over Johnson's veto. [291] Needing Grant's popularity, Johnson took Grant on his "Swing Around the Circle" tour, a failed attempt to gain national support for lenient policies toward the South. [292] Grant privately called Johnson's speeches a "national disgrace" and he left the tour early. [293] On March 2, 1867, overriding Johnson's veto, Congress passed the first of three Reconstruction Acts, using military officers to enforce the policy. [294] Protecting Grant, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act, preventing his removal or relocation, and forcing Johnson to pass orders through Grant. [295]

Grant wanted to replace Edwin Stanton, a Radical Republican, as Secretary of War but recommended against bypassing the Tenure of Office Act, prohibiting a cabinet removal without Senate approval. [296] Grant accepted the position, not wanting the Army to fall under a conservative appointee who would impede Reconstruction, and managed an uneasy partnership with Johnson. [297] In December 1867, Congress voted to keep Stanton, who was reinstated by a Senate Committee on Friday, January 10, 1868. Grant told Johnson he was going to resign office to avoid fines and imprisonment. Johnson said he would assume Grant's legal responsibility, and reminded Grant that he had promised him to delay his resignation until a suitable replacement was found. [298] The following Monday, Grant surrendered the office to Stanton. [299] Johnson, with the complete backing of his cabinet, accused Grant of lying and "duplicity" at a stormy cabinet meeting, while a shocked and disappointed Grant felt it was Johnson who was lying. [300] The publication of angry messages between Grant and Johnson led to a complete break between the two. [301] The controversy led to Johnson's impeachment and trial in the Senate. [302] Johnson was saved from removal from office by one vote. [303] Grant's popularity rose among the Radical Republicans and his nomination for the presidency appeared certain. [304]

Election of 1868

When the Republican Party met at the 1868 Republican National Convention in Chicago, the delegates unanimously nominated Grant for president and Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax for vice president. [302] Although Grant had preferred to remain in the army, he accepted the Republican nomination, believing that he was the only one who could unify the nation. [305] The Republicans advocated "equal civil and political rights to all" and African American enfranchisement. [306] [307] The Democrats, having abandoned Johnson, nominated former governor Horatio Seymour of New York for president and Francis P. Blair of Missouri for vice president. [308] The Democrats advocated the immediate restoration of former Confederate states to the Union and amnesty from "all past political offenses". [309]

Grant played no overt role during the campaign and instead was joined by Sherman and Sheridan in a tour of the West that summer. [310] However, the Republicans adopted his words "Let us have peace" as their campaign slogan. [311] Grant's 1862 General Order No. 11 became an issue during the presidential campaign he sought to distance himself from the order, saying "I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit." [312] The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction, intimidating blacks, and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, alienating War Democrats in the North. [313] Grant won the popular vote by 300,000 votes out of 5,716,082 votes cast, receiving an Electoral College landslide of 214 votes to Seymour's 80. [314] Seymour received a majority of white voters, but Grant was aided by 500,000 votes cast by blacks, [308] winning him 52.7 percent of the popular vote. [315] He lost Louisiana and Georgia, primarily due to Ku Klux Klan violence against African-American voters. [316] At the age of 46, Grant was the youngest president yet elected, and the first president after the nation had outlawed slavery. [317]

On March 4, 1869, Grant was sworn in as the eighteenth President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. In his inaugural address, Grant urged the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, while large numbers of African Americans attended his inauguration. [318] He also urged that bonds issued during the Civil War should be paid in gold and called for "proper treatment" of Native Americans and encouraged their "civilization and ultimate citizenship". [319]

Grant's cabinet appointments sparked both criticism and approval. [320] He appointed Elihu B. Washburne Secretary of State and John A. Rawlins Secretary of War. [321] Washburne resigned, and Grant appointed him Minister to France. Grant then appointed former New York Senator Hamilton Fish Secretary of State. [321] Rawlins died in office, and Grant appointed William W. Belknap Secretary of War. [322] Grant appointed New York businessman Alexander T. Stewart Secretary of Treasury, but Stewart was found legally ineligible to hold office by a 1789 law. [323] [x] Grant then appointed Massachusetts Representative George S. Boutwell Secretary of Treasury. [321] Philadelphia businessman Adolph E. Borie was appointed Secretary of Navy, but found the job stressful and resigned. [324] [y] Grant then appointed New Jersey's attorney general, George M. Robeson, Secretary of Navy. [326] Former Ohio Governor Jacob D. Cox (Interior,) former Maryland Senator John Creswell (Postmaster-General,) and Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar (Attorney General) rounded out the cabinet. [327]

Grant nominated Sherman to succeed him as general-in-chief and gave him control over war bureau chiefs. [328] When Rawlins took over the War Department he complained to Grant that Sherman was given too much authority. Grant reluctantly revoked his own order, upsetting Sherman and damaging their wartime friendship. James Longstreet, a former Confederate general who had endorsed Grant's nomination, was nominated for the position of Surveyor of Customs of the port of New Orleans this was met with general amazement, and seen as a genuine effort to unite the North and South. [329] In March 1872, Grant signed legislation that established Yellowstone National Park, the first national park. [330] Grant was sympathetic to women's rights including support of female suffrage, saying he wanted "equal rights to all citizens". [331]

To make up for his infamous General Order No. 11, Grant appointed more than fifty Jewish people to federal office, including consuls, district attorneys, and deputy postmasters. [332] He appointed Edward S. Salomon territorial governor of Washington, the first time an American Jewish man occupied a governor's seat. Grant was sympathetic to the plight of persecuted Jewish people. In November 1869, reports surfaced of the Russian Czar Alexander II punishing 2,000 Jewish families for smuggling by expelling them to the interior of the country. In response, Grant publicly supported the Jewish American B'nai B'rith petition against the Czar. In December 1869, Grant appointed a Jewish journalist as Consul to Romania, to protect Jewish people from "severe oppression". [332]

In 1875, Grant proposed a constitutional amendment that limited religious indoctrination in public schools. [333] Instruction of "religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets", would be banned, while funding "for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination", would be prohibited. Schools would be for all children "irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions". [334] Grant's views were incorporated into the Blaine Amendment, but it was defeated by the Senate. [335]

Reconstruction and civil rights

Grant was considered an effective civil rights president, concerned about the plight of African Americans. [336] On March 18, 1869, Grant signed into law equal rights for blacks, to serve on juries and hold office, in Washington D.C., and in 1870 he signed into law the Naturalization Act that gave foreign blacks citizenship. [336] During his first term, Reconstruction took precedence. Republicans controlled most Southern states, propped up by Republican controlled Congress, northern money, and southern military occupation. [337] [z] Grant advocated the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment that said states could not disenfranchise African Americans. [339] Within a year, the three remaining states—Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas—adopted the new amendment—and were admitted to Congress. [340] Grant put military pressure on Georgia to reinstate its black legislators and adopt the new amendment. [341] Georgia complied, and on February 24, 1871 its Senators were seated in Congress, with all the former Confederate states represented. [342] [aa]

In 1870, to enforce Reconstruction, Congress and Grant created the Justice Department that allowed the Attorney General and the new Solicitor General to prosecute the Klan. [344] Congress and Grant passed a series of Enforcement Acts, designed to protect blacks and Reconstruction governments. [345] [ab] Using the powers of the Enforcement Acts, Grant crushed the Ku Klux Klan, [347] but in both his terms Blacks lost political strength in the Southern United States. By October, Grant suspended habeas corpus in part of South Carolina and sent federal troops to help marshals, who initiated prosecutions. [348] Grant's Attorney General, Amos T. Akerman, who replaced Hoar, was zealous to destroy the Klan. [349] Akerman and South Carolina's U.S. marshal arrested over 470 Klan members, while hundreds of Klansmen, including the wealthy leaders, fled the state. [350] [ac] By 1872 the Klan's power had collapsed, and African Americans voted in record numbers in elections in the South. [352] [ad] Attorney General George H. Williams, Akerman's replacement, in the Spring of 1873, suspended prosecutions of the Klan in North Carolina and South Carolina, but prior to the election of 1874, he changed course and prosecuted the Klan. [354] [ae] [af]

During Grant's second term, the North retreated from Reconstruction, while southern conservative whites called "Redeemers" formed armed groups, the Red Shirts and the White League, who openly used violence, intimidation, voter fraud, and racist appeals to overturn Republican rule. [358] Northern apathy toward blacks, the depressed economy and Grant's scandals made it politically difficult for the Grant administration to maintain support for Reconstruction. Power shifted when the House was taken over by the Democrats in the election of 1874. [359] [ag] Grant ended the Brooks–Baxter War, bringing Reconstruction in Arkansas to a peaceful conclusion. He sent troops to New Orleans in the wake of the Colfax massacre and disputes over the election of Governor William Pitt Kellogg. [361] Grant recalled Sheridan and most of the federal troops from Louisiana. [362]

By 1875, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all but three Southern states. As violence against black Southerners escalated once more, Grant's Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont told Republican Governor Adelbert Ames of Mississippi that the people were "tired of the autumnal outbreaks in the South", and declined to intervene directly, instead of sending an emissary to negotiate a peaceful election. [363] Grant later regretted not issuing a proclamation to help Ames, having been told Republicans in Ohio would bolt the party if Grant intervened in Mississippi. [364] Grant told Congress in January 1875 he could not "see with indifference Union men or Republicans ostracized, persecuted, and murdered." [365] Congress refused to strengthen the laws against violence but instead passed a sweeping law to guarantee blacks access to public facilities. [366] Grant signed it as the Civil Rights Act of 1875, but there was little enforcement and the Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional in 1883. [367] In October 1876, Grant dispatched troops to South Carolina to keep Republican Governor Daniel Henry Chamberlain in office. [368]

Grant's Republican successor, President Rutherford B. Hayes, was conciliatory toward the South and favored "local control" of civil rights on the condition that Democrats make an honorary pledge to confirm the constitutional amendments that protected blacks. [369] During Republican negotiations with Democrats, that Grant took no direct part in, the Republicans received the White House for Hayes in return for ending enforcement of racial equality for blacks and removing federal troops from the last three states. [370] As promised, Hayes withdrew federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, which marked the end of Reconstruction. [371]

Native American policy

When Grant took office in 1869, the nation's policy towards Native Americans was in chaos, affecting more than 250,000 Native Americans being governed by 370 treaties. [372] He appointed Ely S. Parker, a Seneca and member of his wartime staff, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to serve in this position, surprising many around him. [373] Grant's religious faith also influenced his policy towards Native Americans, believing that the "Creator" did not place races of men on earth for the "stronger" to destroy the "weaker". [374] The overall objective of Grant's peace policy was to assimilate Indians into white culture, education, language, religion, clothing, and government. [375]

In April 1869, Grant signed legislation establishing an unpaid Board of Indian Commissioners to reduce corruption and oversee implementation of what was called Grant's Indian "Peace" policy. [376] [ah] In 1871, Grant ended the sovereign tribal treaty system by law individual Native Americans were deemed wards of the federal government. [378] [ai] Grant's Indian policy was undermined by Parker's resignation in 1871, denominational infighting among Grant's chosen religious agents, and entrenched economic interests. [379] Indian wars declined overall during Grant's first term, while on October 1, 1872, Major General Oliver Otis Howard negotiated peace with the Apache leader Cochise. [380]

During his second term, Grant's Indian policy fell apart. [381] On April 11, 1873, Major General Edward Canby was killed in Northern California south of Tule Lake by Modoc leader Kintpuash, in a failed peace conference to end the Modoc War. [382] Grant ordered restraint after Canby's death. The army captured Kintpuash, who was convicted of Canby's murder and hanged on October 3 at Fort Klamath, while the remaining Modoc tribe was relocated to the Indian Territory. [382] In 1874, the army defeated the Comanche at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, forcing them to finally settle at the Fort Sill reservation in 1875. [383] Grant pocket-vetoed a bill in 1874 protecting bison and supporting Interior Secretary Columbus Delano, who believed correctly the killing of bison would force Plains Native Americans to abandon their nomadic lifestyle. [384] [aj]

Great Sioux War

After gold was discovered in the Black Hills and trespassing occurred on Sioux protected lands, used for religious and marital ceremonies Red Cloud reluctantly entered negotiations on May 26, 1875, but other Sioux chiefs readied for war. [386] Grant told the Sioux leaders to make "arrangements to allow white persons to go into the Black Hills." Antagonistic toward Native American culture, Grant told them their children would attend schools, speak English, and prepare "for the life of white men." [375]

On November 3, 1875, Grant held a meeting at the White House and, under advice from Sheridan, agreed not to enforce keeping out miners from the Black Hills, forcing Native Americans onto the Sioux reservation. [387] Sheridan told Grant that the U.S. Army was undermanned and the territory involved was vast, requiring great numbers of soldiers to enforce the treaty. [388]

During the Great Sioux War that started after Sitting Bull refused to relocate to agency land, warriors led by Crazy Horse killed George Armstrong Custer and his men at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. The slaughter took place during the Centennial, and the Indian victory was announced to the nation on July 4, while angry Americans demanded retribution. Grant castigated Custer in the press, saying "I regard Custer's massacre as a sacrifice of troops, brought on by Custer himself, that was wholly unnecessary—wholly unnecessary." [389] Previously, Custer had infuriated Grant when he testified against Grant's brother Orville during a House investigation into trading post graft on March 1, 1876. [390] In September and October 1876, Grant convinced the tribes to relinquish the Black Hills. Congress ratified the agreement three days before Grant left office in 1877. [391] [ak] [al]

Foreign affairs

Grant was a man of peace, and almost wholly devoted to domestic affairs. With Grant's limited foreign policy experience, he was under capable hands with Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, an experienced statesman. There were no foreign-policy disasters, and no wars to engage in. Besides Grant himself, the main players in foreign affairs were Secretary Fish and the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Charles Sumner. They had to cooperate to get a treaty ratified. Sumner led the opposition to Grant's plan to annex Santo Domingo, with that nation's cooperation, and the measure was defeated. Historians have high regard for the professionalism, independence, and good judgment of Hamilton Fish. The main issues involved Britain, Canada, Santo Domingo, Cuba, and Spain. Worldwide, it was a peaceful era, with no major wars directly affecting the United States. [395] [am] In 1871, an U.S. expedition to Korea failed to open up trade and ended with an American military victory at the battle of Ganghwa-do. [397]

Alabama claims

The most pressing diplomatic problem in 1869 was the settlement of the Alabama claims, depredations caused to the Union by the Confederate warship CSS Alabama, built in a British shipyard in violation of neutrality rules. [398] Secretary Hamilton Fish played the central role in formulating and implementing the Treaty of Washington and the Geneva arbitration (1872). [399] Senator Charles Sumner, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee led the demand for reparations, with talk of British Columbia as payment. [400] Fish and Treasurer George Boutwell convinced Grant that peaceful relations with Britain were essential, and the two nations agreed to negotiate along those lines. [401] To avoid jeopardizing negotiations, Grant refrained from recognizing Cuban rebels who were fighting for independence from Spain, which would have been inconsistent with American objections to the British granting belligerent status to Confederates. [402] [an] A commission in Washington produced a treaty whereby an international tribunal would settle the damage amounts the British admitted regret, but not fault. [403] [ao] The Senate, including Grant critics Sumner and Carl Schurz, approved the Treaty of Washington, which settled disputes over fishing rights and maritime boundaries, by a 50–12 vote, signed on May 8, 1871. [405] The Alabama claims settlement would be Grant's most successful foreign policy achievement that secured peace with Great Britain and the United States. [406] The settlement of the Alabama Claims turned Britain into America's strongest ally. [407]

Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

In 1869, Grant initiated his plan, later to become an obsession, to annex the Dominican Republic, then called Santo Domingo. [408] Grant believed acquisition of the Caribbean island and Samaná Bay would increase the United States natural resources, and strengthen U.S. naval protection to enforce the Monroe Doctrine, safeguard against British obstruction of U.S. shipping and protect a future oceanic canal, stop slavery in Cuba and Brazil, while blacks in the United States would have a safe haven from "the crime of Klu Kluxism". [409]

Joseph W. Fabens, an American speculator who represented Buenaventura Báez, the president of the Dominican Republic, met with Secretary Fish and proposed annexation, [410] whose island inhabitants sought American protection. [411] Fish wanted nothing to do with the island, but he dutifully brought up Faben's proposal to Grant at a cabinet meeting. [412] On July 17, Grant sent his military White House aide Orville E. Babcock to evaluate the islands' resources, local conditions, and Báez's terms for annexation, but was given no diplomatic authority. [413] When Babcock returned to Washington with two unauthorized annexation treaties, Grant, however, approved and pressured his cabinet to accept them. [414] [ap] Grant ordered Fish to draw up formal treaties, sent to Báez by Babcock's return to the island nation. The Dominican Republic would be annexed for $1.5 million and Samaná Bay would be lease-purchased for $2 million. General D.B. Sackett and General Rufus Ingalls accompanied Babcock. [416] On November 29, President Báez signed the treaties. On December 21, the treaties were placed before Grant and his cabinet. [417]

Grant's grand plan to annex Santo Domingo, a black and mixed-race nation, into the United States, however, would be hostilely obstructed by Senator Charles Sumner. [418] On December 31, Grant met with Sumner, unannounced, at Sumner's Washington D.C. home to gain his support for annexation. Grant left confident Sumner approved, but what Sumner actually said was controversially disputed, by various witnesses. Without appealing to the American public, to his detriment, Grant submitted the treaties on January 10, 1870, to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by the stubborn and imperious Sumner, for ratification, but Sumner purposefully shelved the bills. [419] Prompted by Grant to stop stalling the treaties, Sumner's committee took action but rejected the bills by a 5-to-2 vote. Sumner opposed annexation and reportedly said the Dominicans were "a turbulent, treacherous race" in a closed session of the Senate. [420] Sumner sent the treaties for a full Senate vote, while Grant personally lobbied other senators. Despite Grant's efforts, the Senate defeated the treaties, on Thursday, June 30, by a 28–28 vote when a 2/3 majority was required. [421]

Grant was outraged, and on Friday, July 1, 1870, he sacked his appointed Minister to Great Britain, John Lothrop Motley, Sumner's close friend and ally. [422] In January 1871, Grant signed a joint resolution to send a commission to investigate annexation. [423] For this undertaking, he chose three neutral parties, with Fredrick Douglass to be secretary of the commission, that gave Grant the moral high ground from Sumner. [424] Although the commission approved its findings, the Senate remained opposed, forcing Grant to abandon further efforts. [425] Seeking retribution, in March 1871, Grant maneuvered to have Sumner deposed of Sumner's powerful Senate chairmanship, replaced by Grant ally Simon Cameron. [426] The stinging controversy over Santo Domingo overshadowed Grant's foreign diplomacy. [406] Critics complained of Grant's reliance on military personnel to implement his policies. [416]

Cuba and Virginius Affair

American policy was to remain neutral during the Ten Years' War (1868–78), a series of long bloody revolts that were taking place in Cuba against Spanish rule. The U.S. refused to recognize the belligerence of the rebels, and in effect endorsed Spanish colonial rule there, while calling for the abolition of slavery in Cuba. [427] This policy was shaken in October 1873, when a Spanish cruiser captured a merchant ship, Virginius, flying the U.S. flag, carrying supplies and men to aid the insurrection. Treated as pirates, without trial, Spanish authorities executed a total of 53 prisoners, including eight American citizens. American Captain Joseph Frye was executed and his crew was executed and decapitated, while their lifeless bodies were mutilated, trampled by horses. Many enraged Americans protested and called for war with Spain. Grant ordered U.S. Navy Squadron warships to converge on Cuba, off of Key West, supported by the USS Kansas. On November 27, Fish reached a diplomatic resolution in which Spain's president, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, expressed his regret, surrendered the Virginius and the surviving captives. A year later, Spain paid a cash indemnity of $80,000 to the families of the executed Americans. [428] [429]

Free trade with Hawaii

In the face of strong opposition from Democrats, Grant and Fish secured a free trade treaty in 1875 with the Kingdom of Hawaii, incorporating the Pacific islands' sugar industry into the United States' economic sphere. [430] The Southern Democrats, wanting to protect American rice and sugar producers, tried to squash a bill to implement the Hawaiian treaty. The Democrats, in opposition, because the treaty was believed to be an island annexation attempt, referred to the Hawaiians as an "inferior" non-white race. Despite opposition, the implementation bill passed Congress. [430]

Gold standard and conspiracy

Soon after taking office, Grant took conservative steps to return the nation's currency to a more secure footing. [402] During the Civil War, Congress had authorized the Treasury to issue banknotes that, unlike the rest of the currency, were not backed by gold or silver. The "greenback" notes, as they were known, were necessary to pay the unprecedented war debts, but they also caused inflation and forced gold-backed money out of circulation Grant was determined to return the national economy to pre-war monetary standards. [431] On March 18, 1869, he signed the Public Credit Act of 1869 that guaranteed bondholders would be repaid in "coin or its equivalent", while greenbacks would gradually be redeemed by the Treasury and replaced by notes backed by specie. The act committed the government to the full return of the gold standard within ten years. [432] This followed a policy of "hard currency, economy and gradual reduction of the national debt." Grant's own ideas about the economy were simple, and he relied on the advice of wealthy and financially successful businessmen that he courted. [402]

In April 1869, railroad tycoons Jay Gould and Jim Fisk, conspired to corner the gold market in New York, the nation's financial capital. [433] They controlled the Erie Railroad, and a high price of gold would allow foreign agriculture buyers to purchase exported crops, shipped east over the Erie's routes. [434] Boutwell's bi-weekly policy of selling gold from the Treasury, however, kept gold artificially low. [435] Unable to corrupt Boutwell, the two schemers built a relationship with Grant's brother-in-law, Abel Corbin, and gained access to Grant. [436] Gould bribed Assistant Treasurer Daniel Butterfield $10,000 to gain insided information into the Treasury. [437] [aq] [ar] Gould and Fisk personally lobbied Grant on board their private yacht from New York to Boston, in mid-June 1869 to influence Grant's gold policy. [439] [as]

Election of 1872 and second term

Grant's first administration was mixed with both success and failure. [448] In 1871, to placate reformers, he created the America's first Civil Service Commission, chaired by reformer George William Curtis. [449]

The Liberal Republicans, composed of reformers, men who supported low tariffs, and those who opposed Grant's prosecution of the Klan, broke from Grant and the Republican Party. [450] The Liberals, who personally disliked Grant, detested his alliance with Senator Simon Cameron and Senator Roscoe Conkling, considered to be spoilsmen politicians. [451]

In 1872, the Liberals nominated Horace Greeley, a leading Republican New York Tribune editor and a fierce enemy of Grant, for president, and Missouri governor B. Gratz Brown, for vice president. [452] The Liberals denounced Grantism, corruption, nepotism, and inefficiency, demanded the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, literacy tests for blacks to vote, and amnesty for Confederates. [453] The Democrats adopted the Greeley-Brown ticket and the Liberals party platform. [454] [au] Greeley, whose Tribune gave him wider name recognition and a louder campaign voice, pushed the themes that the Grant administration was failed and corrupt. [456]

The Republicans nominated Grant for reelection, with Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts replacing Colfax as the vice presidential nominee. [457] [av] The Republicans shrewdly borrowed from the Liberals party platform including "extended amnesty, lowered tariffs, and embraced civil service reform." [459] Grant lowered customs duties, gave amnesty to former Confederates, and implemented a civil service merit system, neutralizing the opposition. [460] To placate the burgeoning suffragist movement, the Republicans' platform mentioned women's rights would be treated with "respectful consideration." [461] Concerning Southern policy, Greeley advocated local government control be given to whites, while Grant advocated federal protection of blacks. [462] Grant was supported by Frederick Douglass, prominent abolitionists, and Indian reformers. [463]

Grant won reelection easily thanks to federal prosecution of the Klan, a strong economy, debt reduction, lowered tariffs, and tax reductions. [464] He received 3.6 million (55.6%) votes to Greeley's 2.8 million votes and an Electoral College landslide of 286 to 66. [465] [aw] A majority of African Americans in the South voted for Grant, while Democratic opposition remained mostly peaceful. [468] Grant lost in six former slave states that wanted to see an end to Reconstruction. [469] He proclaimed the victory as a personal vindication of his presidency, but inwardly he felt betrayed by the Liberals. [470] Grant was sworn in for his second term by Salmon P. Chase on March 4, 1873. In his second inaugural address, he reiterated the problems still facing the nation and focused on what he considered the chief issues of the day: freedom and fairness for all Americans while emphasizing the benefits of citizenship for freed slaves. Grant concluded his address with the words, "My efforts in the future will be directed towards the restoration of good feelings between the different sections of our common community". [471] [ax] In 1873, Wilson suffered a stroke never fully recovering, he died in office on November 22, 1875. [473] [ay] With Wilson's loss, Grant relied on Fish's guidance more than ever. [475]

Panic of 1873 and loss of Congress

Grant continued to work for a strong dollar, signing into law the Coinage Act of 1873, which effectively ended the legal basis for bimetallism (the use of both silver and gold as money), establishing the gold standard in practice. [476] [az] The Coinage Act discontinued the standard silver dollar and established the gold dollar as the sole monetary standard because the gold supply did not increase as quickly as the population, the result was deflation. Silverites, who wanted more money in circulation to raise the prices that farmers received, denounced the move as the "Crime of 1873", claiming the deflation made debts more burdensome for farmers. [478]

Economic turmoil renewed during Grant's second term. In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company, a New York brokerage house, collapsed after it failed to sell all of the bonds issued by Cooke's Northern Pacific Railway. The collapse rippled through Wall Street, and other banks and brokerages that owned railroad stocks and bonds were also ruined. [479] On September 20, the New York Stock Exchange suspended trading for ten days. [480] Grant, who knew little about finance, traveled to New York to consult leading businessmen and bankers for advice on how to resolve the crisis, which became known as the Panic of 1873. [481] Grant believed that, as with the collapse of the Gold Ring in 1869, the panic was merely an economic fluctuation that affected bankers and brokers. [482] He instructed the Treasury to buy $10 million in government bonds, injecting cash into the system. The purchases curbed the panic on Wall Street, but an industrial depression, later called the Long Depression, nonetheless swept the nation. [481] Many of the nation's railroads—89 out of 364—went bankrupt. [483]

Congress hoped inflation would stimulate the economy and passed what became known as the "Inflation Bill" in 1874. Many farmers and workingmen favored the bill, which would have added $64 million in greenbacks to circulation, but some Eastern bankers opposed it because it would have weakened the dollar. [484] Belknap, Williams, and Delano [ba] told Grant a veto would hurt Republicans in the November elections. Grant believed the bill would destroy the credit of the nation, and he vetoed it despite their objections. Grant's veto placed him in the conservative faction of the Republican Party and was the beginning of the party's commitment to a gold-backed dollar. [486] Grant later pressured Congress for a bill to further strengthen the dollar by gradually reducing the number of greenbacks in circulation. When the Democrats gained a majority in the House after the 1874 elections, the lame-duck Republican Congress did so before the Democrats took office. [487] On January 14, 1875, Grant signed the Specie Payment Resumption Act, which required gradual reduction of the number of greenbacks allowed to circulate and declared that they would be redeemed for gold beginning on January 1, 1879. [488] [bb]

Scandals and reforms

The post-Civil War economy brought on massive industrial wealth and government expansion. Speculation, lifestyle extravagance, and corruption in federal offices were rampant. [490] All of Grant's executive departments were investigated by Congress. [491] Grant by nature was honest, trusting, gullible, and extremely loyal to his chosen friends. His responses to malfeasance were mixed, at times appointing cabinet reformers, but also at times defending culprits. [492]

Grant in his first term appointed Secretary of Interior Jacob D. Cox, who implemented civil service reform: he fired unqualified clerks, and took other measures. [493] On October 3, 1870, Cox resigned office under a dispute with Grant over handling of a mining claim. [494] [bc] Authorized by Congress on March 3, 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission. [496] Grant appointed the Commission who created rules for competitive exams, the end of mandatory political assessments, classifying positions into grades, and appointees chosen from the top three performing federal applicants. [497] The rules took effect on January 1, 1872, but Department heads, and others were exempted. [498] [bd] [be] Grant, more than any previous president, elevated the federal civil service, but his critics refused to acknowledge this. [498]

In November 1871, Grant's appointed New York Collector, and Conkling ally, Thomas Murphy, resigned. Grant replaced Murphy with another Conkling ally, Chester A. Arthur, who implemented Boutwell's reforms. [501] A Senate committee investigated the New York Customs House from January 3, 1872, to June 4, 1872. This led to Grant firing warehouse owner George K. Leet, for charging exorbitant freight fees and splitting the profits. [502] Grant ordered prosecutions in New York by Attorney General George H. Williams and Secretary of Treasury Boutwell of persons accepting and paying for bribes. [503] Although exonerated, Grant was derided for his association with Conkling's New York patronage machine. [504]

On March 3, 1873, Grant signed into law an appropriation act that increased pay for federal employees, Congress, the Judiciary, and the President. [505] Grant's annual salary doubled from $25,000 to $50,000. Publicly derided, the law was partially repealled, but Grant kept his much needed pay raise. [506] Grant's personal reputation remained intact. [507]

In 1872, Grant signed into law an act that ended private moiety (tax collection) contracts, but an attached rider allowed three more contracts. [508] Boutwell's assistant secretary William A. Richardson, hired John B. Sanborn to go after "individuals and cooperations" who allegedly evaded taxes. Retained by Richardson (as Secretary), Sanborn aggressively collected $427,000 in supposed delinquent taxes, keeping half for himself, splitting $160,000 of his money with others. [509] During an 1874 Congressional investigation, Richardson denied involvement, but Sanborn said he met with Richardson six times over the contracts. [510] Congress severely condemned Richardson's permissive manner. Grant appointed Richardson judge of the Court of Claims, and replaced him with reformer Benjamin Bristow. [511] In June, Grant and Congress abolished the moiety system. [512]

Bristow effectively cleaned house, tightened up the Treasury's investigation force, implemented civil service, and fired hundreds of corrupt appointees. [513] Bristow discovered Treasury receipts were low, and launched an investigation that uncovered the notorious Whiskey Ring, that involved collusion between distillers and Treasury officials to evade paying the Treasury millions in tax revenues. [514] Much of this money was being pocketed while some of it went into Republican coffers. [515] Bristow informed Grant of the ring in mid-April and on May 10, Bristow struck. [516] Federal marshals raided 32 installations nationwide and arrested 350 men 176 indictments were obtained, leading to 110 convictions and $3,150,000 in fines returned to the Treasury. [517]

Grant appointed David Dyer, under Bristow's recommendation, federal attorney to prosecute the Ring in St. Louis, who indicted Grant's old friend General John McDonald, supervisor of Internal Revenue. [518] Grant endorsed Bristow's investigation writing on a letter "Let no guilty man escape. " [519] Bristow's investigation discovered Babcock received kickback payments, and that Babcock had secretly forewarned McDonald, the ring's mastermind boss, of the coming investigation. [520] On November 22, the jury convicted McDonald. [521] On December 9, Babcock was indicted, however, Grant refused to believe in Babcock's guilt, was ready to testify in Babcock's favor, but Fish warned that doing so would put Grant in the embarrassing position of testifying against a case prosecuted by his own administration. [522] Instead, Grant remained in Washington and on February 12, 1876, gave a deposition in Babcock's defense, expressing that his confidence in his secretary was "unshaken". [523] Grant's testimony silenced all but his strongest critics. [524]

The St. Louis jury acquitted Babcock, but there was enough evidence revealed that Grant reluctantly dismissed him from the White House, although Babcock kept his position of Superintendent of Public Buildings in Washington. [525] [bf]

The Interior Department under Secretary Columbus Delano, whom Grant appointed to replace Cox, was rife with fraud and corruption, with the exception of Delano's effective oversight of Yellowstone, and Delano was forced to resign. Surveyor General Silas Reed had set up corrupt contracts that benefited Delano's son, John Delano. [527] Grant's Secretary Interior Zachariah Chandler, who succeeded Delano in 1875, implemented reforms, fired corrupt agents, and ended profiteering. [528] When Grant was informed by Postmaster Marshall Jewell of a potential Congressional investigation into an extortion scandal involving Attorney General George H. Williams' wife, Grant fired Williams and appointed reformer Edwards Pierrepont in his place. Grant's new cabinet appointments temporarily appeased reformers. [529]

After the Democrats took control of the House in 1875, more corruption in federal departments was exposed. [530] Among the most damaging scandal involved Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who took quarterly kickbacks from the Fort Sill tradership, which led to his resignation in February 1876. [531] Belknap was impeached by the House but was acquitted by the Senate. [532] Grant's own brother Orvil set up "silent partnerships" and received kickbacks from four trading posts. [533] Congress discovered that Secretary of Navy Robeson had been bribed by a naval contractor, but no articles of impeachment were drawn up. [534] In his December 5, 1876, Eighth Annual Message, Grant apologized to the nation and admitted mistakes were made: "Failures have been errors of judgement, not of intent." [535]

Election of 1876

The abandonment of Reconstruction by the nation played a central role during the Election of 1876. [536] Mounting investigations into corruption by the House, controlled by the Democrats, politically discredited Grant's presidency. [537] Grant, by a public letter in 1875, chose not to run for a third term, while the Republicans chose Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio, a reformer, at their convention. [538] The Democrats nominated Governor Samuel J. Tilden of New York. Voting irregularities in three Southern states caused the election that year to remain undecided for several months. [539] Grant told Congress to settle the matter through legislation and assured both sides that he would not use the army to force a result, except to curb violence. On January 29, 1877, he signed legislation forming an Electoral Commission to decide the matter. [540] Hayes was ruled President by the commission to forestall Democratic protests, Republicans agreed to the Compromise of 1877, in which the last troops were withdrawn from Southern capitals. With Reconstruction dead, an 80-year era of Jim Crow segregation was launched. [541] Grant's "calm visage" throughout the election crisis appeased the nation. [542]

To the chagrin of Grant, President Hayes appointed Reconstruction critics, including Liberal Republican icon Carl Schurz to Secretary of Interior. [543]

After leaving the White House, Grant said he "was never so happy in my life". The Grants left Washington for New York, to attend the birth of their daughter Nellie's child, staying at Hamilton Fish's residence. Calling themselves "waifs", the Grants toured Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, and Galena, without a clear idea of where they would live afterward. [544]

World tour and diplomacy

For some years Grant had entertained the idea of taking a long-deserved vacation after his presidency and, after liquidating one of his investments to finance the venture, the Grants set out on a world tour that lasted approximately two and a half years. [545] Grant's voyage abroad was funded by a Nevada-based mining company investment he made that earned him $25,000. [546] (

$600,000 in 2019 dollars) [547] Preparing for the tour, they arrived in Philadelphia on May 10, 1877, and were honored with celebrations during the week before their departure. On May 16, Grant and Julia left for England aboard the SS Indiana. [548] During the tour the Grants made stops in Europe, Africa, India, and points in the Middle East and Far East, meeting with notable dignitaries such as Queen Victoria, Pope Leo XIII, Otto von Bismarck, Li Hongzhang, Emperor Meiji and others. Grant was the first U.S. president to visit Jerusalem and the Holy Land. [549]

As a courtesy to Grant by the Hayes administration, his touring party received federal transportation on three U.S. Navy ships: a five-month tour of the Mediterranean on the USS Vandalia, travel from Hong Kong to China on the USS Ashuelot, and transportation from China to Japan on the USS Richmond. [550] During the tour, the Hayes administration encouraged Grant to assume a public unofficial diplomatic role to represent the United States and strengthen American interests abroad, while resolving issues for some countries in the process. [551] Homesick, the Grants left Japan sailing on the SS City of Tokio escorted by a Japanese man-of-war, crossed the Pacific and landed in San Francisco on September 20, 1879, greeted by cheering crowds. [552] Before returning home to Philadelphia, Grant stopped at Chicago for a reunion with General Sherman and the Army of the Tennessee. [553] Grant's tour demonstrated to Europe and Asia that the United States was an emerging world power. [554]

Third term attempt

Stalwarts, led by Grant's old political ally, Roscoe Conkling, saw Grant's renewed popularity as an opportunity to regain power, and sought to nominate him for the presidency in 1880. Opponents called it a violation of the unofficial two-term rule in use since George Washington. Grant said nothing publicly but wanted the job and encouraged his men. [555] Washburne urged him to run Grant demurred, saying he would be happy for the Republicans to win with another candidate, though he preferred James G. Blaine to John Sherman. Even so, Conkling and John A. Logan began to organize delegates in Grant's favor. When the convention convened in Chicago in June, there were more delegates pledged to Grant than to any other candidate, but he was still short of a majority vote to get the nomination. [556]

At the convention, Conkling nominated Grant with an eloquent speech, the most famous line being: "When asked which state he hails from, our sole reply shall be, he hails from Appomattox and its famous apple tree." [557] With 370 votes needed for the nomination, the first ballot had Grant at 304, Blaine at 284, Sherman at 93, and the rest to minor candidates. [558] Subsequent ballots followed, with roughly the same result neither Grant nor Blaine could win. After thirty-six ballots, Blaine's delegates deserted him and combined with those of other candidates to nominate a compromise candidate: Representative and former Union general James A. Garfield of Ohio. [559] A procedural motion made the vote unanimous for Garfield, who accepted the nomination. [560] Grant gave speeches for Garfield but declined to criticize the Democratic nominee, Winfield Scott Hancock, a general who had served under him in the Army of the Potomac. [561] Garfield won the election. Grant gave Garfield his public support and pushed him to include Stalwarts in his administration. [562] On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot by an assassin and died on September 19. On learning of Garfield's death from a reporter, Grant wept bitterly. [563]

Business failures

In the 19th century, there were no federal presidential pensions, and the Grants' personal income was limited to $6,000 a year. [564] Grant's world tour had been costly, and he had depleted most of his savings, while he needed to earn money and find a new home. [565] Wealthy friends bought him a house on Manhattan's Upper East Side, and to make an income, Grant, Jay Gould, and former Mexican Finance Secretary Matías Romero chartered the Mexican Southern Railroad, with plans to build a railroad from Oaxaca to Mexico City. Grant urged Chester A. Arthur, who had succeeded Garfield as president in 1881, to negotiate a free trade treaty with Mexico. Arthur and the Mexican government agreed, but the United States Senate rejected the treaty in 1883. The railroad was similarly unsuccessful, falling into bankruptcy the following year. [566]

At the same time, Grant's son Buck had opened a Wall Street brokerage house with Ferdinand Ward—although a conniving man who swindled numerous wealthy men, Ward was at the time regarded as a rising star on Wall Street. The firm, Grant & Ward, was initially successful. [567] In 1883, Grant joined the firm and invested $100,000 of his own money. [568] Grant, however, warned Ward that if his firm engaged in government business he would dissolve their partnership. [569] To encourage investment, Ward paid investors abnormally high interest, by pledging the company's securities on multiple loans in a process called rehypothecation. [570] Ward, in collusion with banker James D. Fish and kept secret from bank examiners, retrieved the firm's securities from the company's bank vault. [571] When the trades went bad, multiple loans came due, all backed up by the same collateral.

Historians agree that Grant was likely unaware of Ward's intentions, but it is unclear how much Buck Grant knew. In May 1884, enough investments went bad to convince Ward that the firm would soon be bankrupt. Ward, who assumed Grant was "a child in business matters," [572] told him of the impending failure, but assured Grant that this was a temporary shortfall. [573] Grant approached businessman William Henry Vanderbilt, who gave him a personal loan of $150,000. [574] Grant invested the money in the firm, but it was not enough to save it from failure. Essentially penniless, but compelled by a sense of personal honor, he repaid what he could with his Civil War mementos and the sale or transfer of all other assets. [575] Vanderbilt took title to Grant's home, although he allowed the Grants to continue to reside there, and pledged to donate the souvenirs to the federal government and insisted the debt had been paid in full. [576] Grant was distraught over Ward's deception and asked privately how he could ever "trust any human being again." [577]

In March 1885, as his health was failing, he testified against both Ward and Fish. [578] Ward was convicted of fraud in October 1885, months after Grant's death, and served six and a half years in prison. [579] After the collapse of Grant & Ward, there was an outpouring of sympathy for Grant. [580]

Memoirs, military pension, and death

Throughout his career, Grant repeatedly told highly detailed stories of his military experiences, often making slight mistakes in terms of dates and locations. As a poor hardscrabble farmer in St. Louis just before the war, he kept his neighbors spellbound till midnight "listening intently to his vivid narrations of Army experiences." [581] In calm moments during the Civil War, he often spoke of his recent experiences, typically "in terse and often eloquent language." [582] Grant's interpretations changed—in his letters written during the Mexican War period, there is no criticism of the war. By contrast his Memoirs are highly critical of the political aspects, condemning the war as unwarranted aggression by the United States. Grant told and retold his war stories so many times that writing his Memoirs was more a matter of repetition and polish rather than trying to recall his memories for the first time. [583] [bg]

In the summer of 1884, Grant complained of a sore throat but put off seeing a doctor until late October, when he learned it was cancer, possibly caused by his frequent cigar smoking. [585] [bh] Grant chose not to reveal the seriousness of his condition to his wife, who soon found out from Grant's doctor. [587] Before being diagnosed, Grant attended a Methodist service for Civil War veterans in Ocean Grove, New Jersey, on August 4, 1884, receiving a standing ovation from more than ten thousand veterans and others it would be his last public appearance. [588] In March of the following year, The New York Times announced that Grant was dying of cancer, and a nationwide public concern for the former president began. [589] Knowing of Grant and Julia's financial difficulties, Congress sought to honor him and restored him to the rank of General of the Army with full retirement pay—Grant's assumption of the presidency in 1869 had required that he resign his commission and forfeit his (and his widow's) pension. [590]

Grant was nearly broke and worried constantly about leaving his wife a suitable amount of money to live on. The Century Magazine offered Grant a book contract with a 10 percent royalty, but Grant's friend Mark Twain, understanding how bad Grant's financial condition was, made him an offer for his memoirs which paid an unheard-of 70 percent royalty. [591] To provide for his family, Grant worked intensely on his memoirs at his home in New York City. His former staff member Adam Badeau assisted him with much of the research, while his son Frederick located documents and did much of the fact-checking. [592] Because of the summer heat and humidity, his doctors recommended that he move upstate to a cottage at the top of Mount McGregor, offered by a family friend. [593]

Grant finished his memoir and died only a few days later. [594] Grant's memoirs treat his early life and time in the Mexican–American War briefly and are inclusive of his life up to the end of the Civil War. [595] The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant was a critical and commercial success. Julia Grant received about $450,000 in royalties (equivalent to $13,000,000 in 2020). [596] The memoir has been highly regarded by the public, military historians, and literary critics. [597] Grant portrayed himself in the persona of the honorable Western hero, whose strength lies in his honesty and straightforwardness. He candidly depicted his battles against both the Confederates and internal army foes. [598] [bi]

After a year-long struggle with throat cancer, surrounded by his family, Grant died at 8:08 a.m. in the Mount McGregor cottage on July 23, 1885, at the age of 63. [600] Sheridan, then Commanding General of the Army, ordered a day-long tribute to Grant on all military posts, and President Grover Cleveland ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Grant's body on a special funeral train, which traveled to West Point and New York City. A quarter of a million people viewed it in the two days before the funeral. Tens of thousands of men, many of them veterans from the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), marched with Grant's casket drawn by two dozen black stallions [601] to Riverside Park in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. His pallbearers included Union generals Sherman and Sheridan, Confederate generals Simon Bolivar Buckner and Joseph E. Johnston, Admiral David Dixon Porter, and Senator John A. Logan, the head of the GAR. [602] Following the casket in the seven-mile-long (11 km) procession were President Cleveland, the two living former presidents Hayes and Arthur, all of the President's Cabinet, as well as the justices of the Supreme Court. [603]

Attendance at the New York funeral topped 1.5 million. [602] Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, while Grant was eulogized in the press and likened to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. [604] Grant's body was laid to rest in Riverside Park, first in a temporary tomb, and then—twelve years later, on April 17, 1897—in the General Grant National Memorial, also known as "Grant's Tomb", the largest mausoleum in North America. [602]

Grant was hailed across the North as the winning general in the American Civil War and overall his military reputation has held up fairly well. Achieving great national fame for his victories at Vicksburg and the surrender at Appomattox, he was widely credited as the General who "saved the Union". Criticized by the South for using excessive force, his overall military reputation stands intact. [605] Grant's drinking was often exaggerated by the press and falsely stereotyped by many of his rivals and critics. [606] During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Grant's reputation was damaged by the Lost Cause movement and the Dunning School. [607] [bj]

In the 1950s, some historians made a reassessment of Grant's military career, shifting the analysis of Grant as the victor by brute force to that of successful, skillful, modern strategist and commander. [609] Historian William S. McFeely's biography, Grant (1981), won the Pulitzer Prize, and brought renewed scholarly interest in Grant. McFeely believed Grant was an "ordinary American" trying to "make his mark" during the 19th Century. [610] In the 21st century, Grant's reputation improved markedly among historians after the publication of Grant (2001), by historian Jean Edward Smith. [611] [612] Opinions of Grant's presidency demonstrate a better appreciation of Grant's personal integrity, Reconstruction efforts, and peace policy towards Indians, even when they fell short. [613] [614] [615]

H.W. Brands' The Man Who Saved the Union (2012), Ronald C. White's American Ulysses (2016) and Ron Chernow's Grant (2017) continued the elevation of Grant's historical reputation. [616] White said Grant, "demonstrated a distinctive sense of humility, moral courage, and determination," and as president he "stood up for African Americans, especially fighting against voter suppression perpetrated by the Ku Klux Klan." [617] White believed Grant was "an exceptional person and leader." [618] Charles W. Calhoun's The Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant (2017) noted Grant's successes in office, but asked whether Grant's revived reputation was found in the "popular consciousness." [619]

Historians still debate how effective Grant was at halting corruption. [620] The scandals during the Grant administration were often used to stigmatize his political reputation. [621] Militarily evaluated, Grant was a modern general and "a skillful leader who had a natural grasp of tactics and strategy." [622]

In 2021, Grant's successful Civil War military strategies, have been recognized and adapted into successful business practices. [623]

Several memorials honor Grant. In addition to his mausoleum—Grant's Tomb in New York City—there is the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial at the foot of Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. [624] Created by sculptor Henry Merwin Shrady and architect Edward Pearce Casey, and dedicated in 1922, it overlooks the Capitol Reflecting Pool. [625] In 2015, restoration work began, which is expected to be completed before the bicentennial of Grant's birth in 2022. [626]

The Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site near St. Louis, and several other sites in Ohio and Illinois memorialize Grant's life. [627] The U.S. Grant Cottage State Historic Site, located at the top of Mount McGregor in Wilton, New York, preserves the house in which he completed his memoirs and died. [628] [629] There are smaller memorials in Chicago's Lincoln Park and Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. Named in his honor are Grant Park, as well as several counties in western and midwestern states. On June 3, 1891, a bronze statue of Grant by Danish sculptor Johannes Gelert was dedicated at Grant Park in Galena, Illinois. [630] [631] From 1890 to 1940, part of what is now Kings Canyon National Park was called General Grant National Park, named for the General Grant sequoia. [632]

In May 2012, the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation, on the institute's fiftieth anniversary, selected Mississippi State University as the permanent location for Ulysses S. Grant's presidential library. [633] [634] Historian John Y. Simon edited Grant's letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press. [635]



The mission of the FBI is:


Currently, the FBI's top priorities are: [11]

  • Protect the United States from terrorist attacks
  • Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations, espionage, and cyber operations
  • Combat significant cyber criminal activity
  • Combat public corruption at all levels
  • Protect civil rights
  • Combat transnational criminal enterprises
  • Combat major white-collar crime
  • Combat significant violent crime


In the fiscal year 2019, the Bureau's total budget was approximately $9.6 billion. [12]

In the Authorization and Budget Request to Congress for fiscal year 2021, [13] the FBI asked for $9,800,724,000. Of that money, $9,748,829,000 would be used for Salaries and Expenses and $51,895,000 for Construction. [2] The S&E program saw an increase of $199,673,000.


In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that the United States was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them. [14] [ page needed ]

The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. [15]

Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U.S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. [16] Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would then have its own staff of special agents. [14] [ page needed ]

Creation of BOI

The Bureau of Investigation (BOI) was created on July 26, 1908. [17] Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, [14] [ page needed ] hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, [18] [19] to work for a new investigative agency. Its first "Chief" (the title is now "Director") was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. [14] [ page needed ]

The bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act" or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation.

Creation of FBI

The following year, 1933, the BOI was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation (DOI) it became an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. [18] In the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

J. Edgar Hoover as FBI Director

J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, and FBI. He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure. But as detailed below, his proved to be a highly controversial tenure as Bureau Director, especially in its later years. After Hoover's death, Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years.

Early homicide investigations of the new agency included the Osage Indian murders. During the "War on Crime" of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who committed kidnappings, bank robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, "Baby Face" Nelson, Kate "Ma" Barker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and George "Machine Gun" Kelly.

Other activities of its early decades focused on the scope and influence of the white supremacist group Ku Klux Klan, a group with which the FBI was evidenced to be working in the Viola Liuzzo lynching case. Earlier, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the BOI claimed to have successfully apprehended an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries under the leadership of General Enrique Estrada in the mid-1920s, east of San Diego, California.

Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers. [20] In the 1927 case Olmstead v. United States, in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping, the United States Supreme Court ruled that FBI wiretaps did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure, as long as the FBI did not break into a person's home to complete the tapping. [20] After Prohibition's repeal, Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, which outlawed non-consensual phone tapping, but did allow bugging. [20] In the 1939 case Nardone v. United States, the court ruled that due to the 1934 law, evidence the FBI obtained by phone tapping was inadmissible in court. [20] After Katz v. United States (1967) overturned Olmstead, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control Act, allowing public authorities to tap telephones during investigations, as long as they obtained warrants beforehand. [20]

National security

Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1970s, the bureau investigated cases of espionage against the United States and its allies. Eight Nazi agents who had planned sabotage operations against American targets were arrested, and six were executed (Ex parte Quirin) under their sentences. Also during this time, a joint US/UK code-breaking effort called "The Venona Project"—with which the FBI was heavily involved—broke Soviet diplomatic and intelligence communications codes, allowing the US and British governments to read Soviet communications. This effort confirmed the existence of Americans working in the United States for Soviet intelligence. [21] Hoover was administering this project, but he failed to notify the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of it until 1952. Another notable case was the arrest of Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1957. [22] The discovery of Soviet spies operating in the US allowed Hoover to pursue his longstanding obsession with the threat he perceived from the American Left, ranging from Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) union organizers to American liberals.

Japanese American internment

In 1939, the Bureau began compiling a custodial detention list with the names of those who would be taken into custody in the event of war with Axis nations. The majority of the names on the list belonged to Issei community leaders, as the FBI investigation built on an existing Naval Intelligence index that had focused on Japanese Americans in Hawaii and the West Coast, but many German and Italian nationals also found their way onto the FBI Index list. [23] Robert Shivers, head of the Honolulu office, obtained permission from Hoover to start detaining those on the list on December 7, 1941, while bombs were still falling over Pearl Harbor. [24] Mass arrests and searches of homes (in most cases conducted without warrants) began a few hours after the attack, and over the next several weeks more than 5,500 Issei men were taken into FBI custody. [25] On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. FBI Director Hoover opposed the subsequent mass removal and confinement of Japanese Americans authorized under Executive Order 9066, but Roosevelt prevailed. [26] The vast majority went along with the subsequent exclusion orders, but in a handful of cases where Japanese Americans refused to obey the new military regulations, FBI agents handled their arrests. [24] The Bureau continued surveillance on Japanese Americans throughout the war, conducting background checks on applicants for resettlement outside camp, and entering the camps (usually without the permission of War Relocation Authority officials) and grooming informants to monitor dissidents and "troublemakers." After the war, the FBI was assigned to protect returning Japanese Americans from attacks by hostile white communities. [24]

Sex deviates program

According to Douglas M. Charles, the FBI's "sex deviates" program began on April 10, 1950, when J. Edgar Hoover forwarded to the White House, to the U.S. Civil Service Commission, and to branches of the armed services a list of 393 alleged federal employees who had allegedly been arrested in Washington, D.C., since 1947, on charges of "sexual irregularities". On June 20, 1951, Hoover expanded the program by issuing a memo establishing a "uniform policy for the handling of the increasing number of reports and allegations concerning present and past employees of the United States Government who assertedly [sic] are sex deviates." The program was expanded to include non-government jobs. According to Athan Theoharis, "In 1951 he [Hoover] had unilaterally instituted a Sex Deviates program to purge alleged homosexuals from any position in the federal government, from the lowliest clerk to the more powerful position of White house aide." On May 27, 1953, Executive Order 10450 went into effect. The program was expanded further by this executive order by making all federal employment of homosexuals illegal. On July 8, 1953, the FBI forwarded to the U.S. Civil Service Commission information from the sex deviates program. In 1977–1978, 300,000 pages, collected between 1930 and the mid-1970s, in the sex deviates program were destroyed by FBI officials. [27] [28] [29]

Civil rights movement

During the 1950s and 1960s, FBI officials became increasingly concerned about the influence of civil rights leaders, whom they believed either had communist ties or were unduly influenced by communists or "fellow travellers." In 1956, for example, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T. R. M. Howard, a civil rights leader, surgeon, and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, and other blacks in the South. [30] The FBI carried out controversial domestic surveillance in an operation it called the COINTELPRO, from "COunter-INTELligence PROgram." [31] It was to investigate and disrupt the activities of dissident political organizations within the United States, including both militant and non-violent organizations. Among its targets was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization whose clergy leadership included the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who is addressed in more detail below. [32]

The FBI frequently investigated King. In the mid-1960s, King began to criticize the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most "notorious liar" in the United States. [34] In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide. [35] Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 1964 "suicide package" sent by the Bureau that combined a letter to the civil rights leader telling him "You are done. There is only one way out for you." with audio recordings of King's sexual indiscretions. [36]

In March 1971, the residential office of an FBI agent in Media, Pennsylvania was burgled by a group calling itself the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. Numerous files were taken and distributed to a range of newspapers, including The Harvard Crimson. [37] The files detailed the FBI's extensive COINTELPRO program, which included investigations into lives of ordinary citizens—including a black student group at a Pennsylvania military college and the daughter of Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin. [37] The country was "jolted" by the revelations, which included assassinations of political activists, and the actions were denounced by members of the Congress, including House Majority Leader Hale Boggs. [37] The phones of some members of the Congress, including Boggs, had allegedly been tapped. [37]

Kennedy's assassination

When President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed, the jurisdiction fell to the local police departments until President Lyndon B. Johnson directed the FBI to take over the investigation. [38] To ensure clarity about the responsibility for investigation of homicides of federal officials, the Congress passed a law that included investigations of such deaths of federal officials, especially by homicide, within FBI jurisdiction. This new law was passed in 1965. [39] [40] [41]

Organized crime

In response to organized crime, on August 25, 1953, the FBI created the Top Hoodlum Program. The national office directed field offices to gather information on mobsters in their territories and to report it regularly to Washington for a centralized collection of intelligence on racketeers. [42] After the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO Act, took effect, the FBI began investigating the former Prohibition-organized groups, which had become fronts for crime in major cities and small towns. All of the FBI work was done undercover and from within these organizations, using the provisions provided in the RICO Act. Gradually the agency dismantled many of the groups. Although Hoover initially denied the existence of a National Crime Syndicate in the United States, the Bureau later conducted operations against known organized crime syndicates and families, including those headed by Sam Giancana and John Gotti. The RICO Act is still used today for all organized crime and any individuals who may fall under the Act's provisions.

In 2003, a congressional committee called the FBI's organized crime informant program "one of the greatest failures in the history of federal law enforcement." [43] The FBI allowed four innocent men to be convicted of the March 1965 gangland murder of Edward "Teddy" Deegan in order to protect Vincent Flemmi, an FBI informant. Three of the men were sentenced to death (which was later reduced to life in prison), and the fourth defendant was sentenced to life in prison. [43] Two of the four men died in prison after serving almost 30 years, and two others were released after serving 32 and 36 years. In July 2007, U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner in Boston found that the Bureau had helped convict the four men using false witness accounts given by mobster Joseph Barboza. The U.S. Government was ordered to pay $100 million in damages to the four defendants. [44]

Special FBI teams

In 1982, the FBI formed an elite unit [45] to help with problems that might arise at the 1984 Summer Olympics to be held in Los Angeles, particularly terrorism and major-crime. This was a result of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when terrorists murdered the Israeli athletes. Named the Hostage Rescue Team, or HRT, it acts as a dedicated FBI SWAT team dealing primarily with counter-terrorism scenarios. Unlike the Special Agents serving on local FBI SWAT teams, HRT does not conduct investigations. Instead, HRT focuses solely on additional tactical proficiency and capabilities. Also formed in 1984 was the Computer Analysis and Response Team, or CART. [46]

From the end of the 1980s to the early 1990s, the FBI reassigned more than 300 agents from foreign counter-intelligence duties to violent crime, and made violent crime the sixth national priority. With cuts to other well-established departments, and because terrorism was no longer considered a threat after the end of the Cold War, [46] the FBI assisted local and state police forces in tracking fugitives who had crossed state lines, which is a federal offense. The FBI Laboratory helped develop DNA testing, continuing its pioneering role in identification that began with its fingerprinting system in 1924.

Notable efforts in the 1990s

On May 1, 1992, FBI SWAT and HRT personnel in Los Angeles County, California aided local officials in securing peace within the area during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. HRT operators, for instance, spent 10 days conducting vehicle-mounted patrols throughout Los Angeles, before returning to Virginia. [47]

Between 1993 and 1996, the FBI increased its counter-terrorism role following the first 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City, the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and the arrest of the Unabomber in 1996. Technological innovation and the skills of FBI Laboratory analysts helped ensure that the three cases were successfully prosecuted. [48] However, Justice Department investigations into the FBI's roles in the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents were found to have been obstructed by agents within the Bureau. During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, the FBI was criticized for its investigation of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. It has settled a dispute with Richard Jewell, who was a private security guard at the venue, along with some media organizations, [49] in regard to the leaking of his name during the investigation this had briefly led to his being wrongly suspected of the bombing.

After Congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, 1994), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA, 1996), and the Economic Espionage Act (EEA, 1996), the FBI followed suit and underwent a technological upgrade in 1998, just as it did with its CART team in 1991. Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) were created to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems, such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs that threatened U.S. operations. With these developments, the FBI increased its electronic surveillance in public safety and national security investigations, adapting to the telecommunications advancements that changed the nature of such problems.

September 11 attacks

During the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, FBI agent Leonard W. Hatton Jr. was killed during the rescue effort while helping the rescue personnel evacuate the occupants of the South Tower, and he stayed when it collapsed. Within months after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller, who had been sworn in a week before the attacks, called for a re-engineering of FBI structure and operations. He made countering every federal crime a top priority, including the prevention of terrorism, countering foreign intelligence operations, addressing cybersecurity threats, other high-tech crimes, protecting civil rights, combating public corruption, organized crime, white-collar crime, and major acts of violent crime. [50]

In February 2001, Robert Hanssen was caught selling information to the Russian government. It was later learned that Hanssen, who had reached a high position within the FBI, had been selling intelligence since as early as 1979. He pleaded guilty to espionage and received a life sentence in 2002, but the incident led many to question the security practices employed by the FBI. There was also a claim that Hanssen might have contributed information that led to the September 11, 2001 attacks. [51]

The 9/11 Commission's final report on July 22, 2004, stated that the FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) were both partially to blame for not pursuing intelligence reports that could have prevented the September 11 attacks. In its most damning assessment, the report concluded that the country had "not been well served" by either agency and listed numerous recommendations for changes within the FBI. [52] While the FBI did accede to most of the recommendations, including oversight by the new Director of National Intelligence, some former members of the 9/11 Commission publicly criticized the FBI in October 2005, claiming it was resisting any meaningful changes. [53]

On July 8, 2007, The Washington Post published excerpts from UCLA Professor Amy Zegart's book Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11. [54] The Post reported, from Zegart's book, that government documents showed that both the CIA and the FBI had missed 23 potential chances to disrupt the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The primary reasons for the failures included: agency cultures resistant to change and new ideas inappropriate incentives for promotion and a lack of cooperation between the FBI, CIA, and the rest of the United States Intelligence Community. The book blamed the FBI's decentralized structure, which prevented effective communication and cooperation among different FBI offices. The book suggested that the FBI had not evolved into an effective counter-terrorism or counter-intelligence agency, due in large part to deeply ingrained agency cultural resistance to change. For example, FBI personnel practices continued to treat all staff other than special agents as support staff, classifying intelligence analysts alongside the FBI's auto mechanics and janitors. [55]

Faulty bullet analysis

For over 40 years, the FBI crime lab in Quantico had believed that lead alloys used in bullets had unique chemical signatures. It was analyzing the bullets with the goal of matching them chemically, not only to a single batch of ammunition coming out of a factory, but also to a single box of bullets. The National Academy of Sciences conducted an 18-month independent review of comparative bullet-lead analysis. In 2003, its National Research Council published a report whose conclusions called into question 30 years of FBI testimony. It found the analytic model used by the FBI for interpreting results was deeply flawed, and the conclusion, that bullet fragments could be matched to a box of ammunition, was so overstated that it was misleading under the rules of evidence. One year later, the FBI decided to stop conducting bullet lead analyses. [56]

After a 60 Minutes/Washington Post investigation in November 2007, two years later, the Bureau agreed to identify, review, and release all pertinent cases, and notify prosecutors about cases in which faulty testimony was given. [57]


November 26, 2016 - Harvey, IL - 38-year-old Tyrone Hardin of Merriville, Indiana was working one of his two armed security jobs at Canadian National’s Markham rail yard yesterday when he was alerted to an intruder. Hardin went to investigate and encountered the armed suspect. There was an altercation, and Hardin was shot. Hardin was taken to Advocate South Suburban Hospital where he was pronounced dead. He's being remembered as a hardworking husband and father of six.

Hardin was not an employee of the rail yard, but a contracted security officer. In a statement, CN Railway said: Multiple police agencies continue to investigate the shooting death of a security officer who was tragically killed Saturday evening while on duty at the CN railroad yard in Harvey. The guard worked with a private security firm that assists CN Police. We would like to express our sincere condolences on this tragic loss to the guard's family, friends and co-workers.

November 24, 2016 - Hope, BC Canada - A CN Rail maintenance worker was found dead 50 kilometers north of Hope. Michael Stevenson fell from a rail bridge and co-workers found him in the creek below the bridge.

November 6, 2016 -- Brewster, OH - BLET member Larry G. Thomas, a member of Division 292 in Beach City, Ohio, was killed in a yard switching accident on November 6, 2016. He was 37 years old. An employee of the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad (WLE), Brother Thomas hired out as a trainman in October of 2012 and earned promotion to locomotive engineer a short time later. He joined the Brotherhood effective February 1, 2013. According to media reports, Brother Thomas was operating a locomotive by remote control at the WLE yard in Brewster, Ohio, at the time of his death.

November 3, 2016 -- Brooklyn, NY - Track worker Louis Gray of the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) was working as a construction flagger at the time of his death just after midnight in Brooklyn, NY. The accident happened around 12:15 when two employees were working on the tracks between the Fort Hamilton Parkway and Church Avenue subway stations preparing the area for overnight maintenance. The two were hit by a southbound G train as it rounded a curve, pinning both men. Firefighters and EMS worked urgently to save the men, climbing through an emergency hatch in the sidewalk at the corner of East 3rd Street and Canton Avenue, lowering themselves downin order to get to the victims. Jefferey Flemming was injured but survived, while Louis Gray was killed. He was a member of Transport Workers Union (TWU) Local #100.

October 30, 2016 -- Artesia, MS - Conductor Christopher Ross Hubbard, 36, of Cottondale, Alabama, died on the railroad tracks at about 10:30 a.m. Hubbard - who worked for the Alabama & Southern Railroad - was on the ground instructing the engineer of a freight train. The engineer was making a back-up move when Hubbard stopped giving instructions. The engineer had already begun to stop the train when he saw Hubbard lying on the ground. The train was preparing to depart for Tuscaloosa, Alabama, when the accident occurred.

August 15, 2016 - Jersey City, NJ - A heavy machine operator was killed at the Norfolk Southern rail facility when he was lifting a storage container using a motorized container handler when the freight fell and crushed the cab with him inside. Jorge Luis Gomez worked for H&M International Shipping which is contracted with NS Railroad. A spokesperson for OSHA said H&M had been previously cited for a safety violation.

June 28, 2016 -- Amarillo, TX - Three train & engine railroad workers - Kenneth Smith, Cody Owens, and Lara Gayle Taylor - were all killed in train wreck in the Texas Panhandle when their trains collided head-on at a controlled point 25 miles Northeast of Amarillo. The wreck - which took place on the busy BNSF transcon - created a large fire and forced the evacuation of area residents. One additional employee survived with injuries and was taken to an area hospital. Owens and Taylor were members of BLET Division 299 in Amarillo. Smith was a member of SMART-TD Local 1313.

May 28, 2016 – Canon City CO – The conductor of the Royal Gorge Railroad Scenic Train fell to her death as the train was nearing the station. Leslie Cacy, 28, was married for a year to the train engineer, Devon Cacy. Leslie started at RGRR as the Office Manager in July 2015, and with her bright mind and eagerness to learn, quickly enrolled in the conductor training class. Within two months, Leslie was fully certified as a conductor and was excelling in her position. Conducting was the perfect position for her to exude her extroverted personality, work with/interact with people, and to spread pure joy and excitement amongst each and every co-worker and train passenger she encountered. [Later: Devon Cacy files a lawsuit]

May 12, 2016 - Salt Lake City, UT – A Salt Lake City veteran Utah Transit Authority train worker who was kidnapped during his shift by a father and son on the run from police died just over two hours later in the wind-swept Wyoming countryside, beaten beyond recognition and his neck slashed, authorities said. Flint Wayne Harrison and Dereck James "DJ" Harrison left Kay Ricks to die and went to a fast-food drive-thru, prosecutors said in charges filed Tuesday. Ricks was beaten to death by the Harrisons on their way to a remote Wyoming hideout, dodging police who say they tied up five women in a Utah basement. The pair was arrested after a five-day manhunt, prosecutors said. The new kidnapping and murder charges filed in Lincoln County, Wyoming, offer the first detail into how authorities believe the 63-year-old Ricks, a family man, was killed on May 12. Harrison family members were investigated. In June 2016, Flint Harrison hanged himself while in a Davis County Utah jail. In September 2016, Dereck Harrison plead guilty to five felony counts of aggravated kidnapping in an unrelated Utah case and in October was sentenced to serve between 30 years to life in prison. Harrison was to be returned to Wyoming to face charges for the Ricks murder. Harrison finally extradited in March 2017.

April 4, 2016 - Missoula, MT - Richard Schmitz was killed while working in the rail yard on an ATV. Schmidtz worked for the Montana Rail Link as a car inspector.

April 3, 2016 -- Chester, PA - Amtrak Train 89, the New York City-Savannah, Ga., Palmetto, partially derailed at Chester, Pa., approximately 15 miles southwest of Philadelphia, on the Northeast Corridor early Sunday, April 3, 2016, after striking a maintenance-of-way vehicle described in news reports as a "backhoe" on the tracks. Two Amtrak maintenance-of-way employees were killed and 35 on board the train were injured, one seriously. Peter John Adamovich of Lincoln University, PA and Joseph Carter, Jr. of Wilmington, DE were struck and killed. Both workers were members of the BMWED and longtime Amtrak employees. Train #89 was heading from New York to Savannah, Georgia, at about 8 a.m. when it hit the equipment that was on the track in Chester. The impact derailed the lead engine of the train that was carrying more than 300 passengers and seven crew members. News reports speculated that there may have been a communication breakdown or that Adamovich and Carter were on the wrong track. Unfortunately we were unable to locate obituaries for them. Updates: Files Released & NTSB Speaks Out - NTSB issues a final accident report.

March 28, 2016 - Northlake IL - George Lewkuc was a locomotive engineer for the Union Pacific Railroad. On March 28, 2016 as he was trying to cross tracks at the Proviso Yard in Northlake, IL, the ground and ballast gave way pitching him head first into a rail track. He suffered a broken neck and a traumatic brain injury. He fought for over a month before being declared brain dead and being removed from life support on May 3, 2016. Brother Lewkuc was a member of BLET Division 683 of Chicago.

March 27, 2016 – St Paul, MN - A rail worker who died after he was struck by a train in St. Paul early Saturday has been identified as a 43-year-old from West Allis, Wis., the Ramsey County medical examiner’s office said. Police were called about 12:30 a.m. to the Canadian Pacific rail yards across the Mississippi River from Holman Field airport, where Jeffrey Harsh had been injured during a shift change, police said. Harsh was crossing the tracks when a slow-moving train hit him, knocking him down, said Sgt. Mike Ernster, a St. Paul police spokesman. Police had initially said he was pinned between two train cars. Harsh was transported to Regions Hospital and pronounced dead. Harsh had sustained a laceration to the back of his head, according to the medical examiner’s office. Brother Harsh was a member of BLET Division 882 in Milwaukee WI.

March 1, 2016 - new Brunswick, NJ - Amtrak employee, Dawud F. Bahr, was struck and killed by a New Jersey Transit train. Bahr was killed not far from the Jersey Avenue station in New Brunswick around 4:45 a.m. not far from the Jersey Avenue station, according to Craig Schulz, a spokesman for Amtrak, which is leading the investigation because the incident happened on the company's tracks. The circumstances of the death are not known at this time, but the matter remains under investigation.

February 20, 2016 - New Orleans, LA - A NS Terminal Trainmaster was found dead Saturday after being hit by a train in New Orleans east has been identified as Kyle Liebold, Norfolk Southern Railway spokeswoman Susan Terpay said Sunday (Feb. 20). Terpay said the 25-year-old Norfolk Southern employee died after being struck by a company train. Liebold was working on the rail line south of the Little Woods community when the northbound train hit him after 6 a.m., she said. New Orleans police said the accident happened at 6:22 a.m. along Lake Pontchartrain near Hayne Boulvard and Mercier Street. NTSB issued a Railroad Accident Brief.

The Power of the Polar Projection, Part One

Continuing to riff on the Soviet Union’s program of Cold War military mapping has me thinking about iconic Cold War maps, or at least the more unusual ways the Cold War landscape has been represented through maps.

One that leapt out was the polar projection, in which the North Pole becomes the center of the map and the USA and USSR find themselves in close and uncomfortable proximity across the top of the world.

Azimuthal projections. Courtesy USGS

One of the most important popularisers of the the azimuthal polar projection (seen on the left of the diagram above) was mapmaker Richard Edes Harrison, staff cartographer or consultant to Time, Fortune, and Life during the Second World War. Harrison’s reputation comes from his willingness to create maps that were striking visual statements. His work really jumps out when you compare it to the average map in a magazine or atlas.

(You can find many fine examples of Harrison’s work in this profile at the New Republic.)

His most popular innovation was the “perspective map” or “Vulture’s View,” which looked like a relief map viewed from altitude (say, 40,000 feet), presenting some of the curvature of the earth and looking very much like a genuine view from altitude (if more precise). The result, printed in full colour in a glossy magazine like Time or Fortune, had an immediacy that more conventional maps lacked. Harrison’s work emphasized the geographic unity of the globe and the ways in which aviation had already reshaped the meaning of proximity. This “air age” cartography lifted the viewer into the air and showed them how flight paths could cut across the globe in ways that a conventional cylindrical projection couldn’t show.

The polar projection was one of these “air age” cartography tools. It showed the viewer just how close the United States was to Europe and the USSR when one wasn’t forced to follow the east-west paths shown on the usual Mercator projection. Maps like “One World, One War” in Look at the World: The Fortune Atlas for World Strategy (1944) or the 1941 “World Divided” in Fortune magazine, which Harrison reused in 1952 as “U.S. Commitment,” picked the polar project to demonstrate the significance of that proximity.

Harrison was hardly the only person busy considering how new perspectives could make American maps more responsive to the demands of World War Two and the Cold War. Timothy Barney’s Mapping the Cold War: Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power ranges from Harrison and the late Cold War maps in DoD’s publicity brochure Soviet Military Power to the AFL-CIO’s wide distribution of the map “Gulag–Slavery, Inc.” and William Bunge’s expressive anti-nuclear Nuclear War Atlas. He points out that the US State Department’s official geographer, S.W. Boggs, was a keen advocate for using projections more appropriate than the familiar but often misleading Mercator projection. More than twenty years before the Peters equal-area projection became a hot topic, Boggs was promoting his own “eumorphic” equal-area projection on the basis that it was better suited to dealing with issues related to the more than half of the world’s population that lived below 40° North latitude.

Boggs Eumorphic projection.
From An Album of Map Projections by John P. Snyder and Philip M. Voxland, p.69. Courtesy USGS.

The reason you rarely see Bogg’s “eumorphic” projection is the same reason you rarely see a polar projection except when someone wants to make a point about geopolitics: there are just too many easily available Mercator maps.

But, even while Boggs was trying and failing to get US officials to look beyond the Mercator projection, one polar projection was showing up again and again around the world. You’ve seen it plenty of times. And it wasn’t even developed by a professional cartographer.

Personal relationships


Data maintained close relationships with most of the Enterprise senior staff – during his time aboard the Jovis, after La Forge's furious refusal to accept that Data himself was somehow responsible for the shuttlecraft explosion that supposedly killed him, Riker told Captain Picard that, for someone incapable of emotion, he certainly evoked them strongly in others around him. ( TNG : " The Most Toys ")

Jean-Luc Picard

Data regarded Picard as something of a father figure throughout his service, asking for Picard's advice on numerous occasions in his quest to become more Human. Picard always gave Data advice whenever he could.

Following Tasha Yar's death in 2364, Data was puzzled about her death, thinking not about Yar but rather how he would subsequently feel in her absence, thinking that he missed the purpose of her memorial but Picard assured him that he understood the purpose of the memorial perfectly. ( TNG : " Skin of Evil ")

Data discussing his rights with Picard

In 2365, Data's existence was threatened when Commander Maddox wished to disassemble and study Data to gain a better understanding of how his positronic brain functioned. Data refused to submit to Maddox's procedure, finding his research flawed but Maddox claimed that Data was property of Starfleet and therefore not a sentient being and as a result had no choice other than to submit to the procedure. Captain Louvois supported Maddox's claim and Picard intervened by challenging their reasoning, saying that Data was indeed sentient and deserved the freedom to make his own decisions. He also said that Data represented an entire race and that forcing him to submit to Maddox's procedure was tantamount to slavery – strictly prohibited under Federation law. Ultimately, Louvois sided with Picard's standpoint and agreed that Data, android or not, was indeed sentient and entitled to the same rights as any other Starfleet officer. ( TNG : " The Measure Of A Man ")

In 2367, Picard's seemingly unbreakable trust in Data was tested when Data refused to fully co-operate in an investigation into a number of events that happened within a 24-hour time span although Data claimed that the time span was only thirty seconds. Data's intransigence threatened to end his Starfleet career and even his own existence but it was later revealed that Captain Picard was himself responsible for Data's unusual behavior after an encounter with the Paxans in a T-Tauri type star system. ( TNG : " Clues ")

During the Klingon Civil War from 2367-8, the Federation made an indirect intervention with a blockade of Starfleet vessels placed in formation to use the pioneering tachyon detection grid in an effort to expose Romulan support for the House of Duras. Picard assigned all of his senior officers positions on board other ships except for Data. Data questioned Picard about why he was not assigned command of a vessel considering that there was a severe lack of senior officers available for the mission, wondering if he felt that his being an android made him unsuitable for command. Picard, slightly embarrassed by Data's question, assigned Data command of the USS Sutherland. During the blockade Data disobeyed direct orders from Captain Picard and was able to expose the Romulan's involvement in the war. Data submitted himself for disciplinary action for disobeying a direct order from his superior officer but Picard praised Data for not following his orders as he believed that doing so was appropriate under the circumstances. ( TNG : " Redemption II ")

In 2369, Data refused to allow a group of exocomps to be sacrificed in order to save the lives of Captain Picard and Lieutenant Commander La Forge, who were trapped on board the Tyrus VIIA station, believing that they were sentient and therefore capable of making their own decisions. After agreeing to a compromise suggested by Commander Riker, the exocomps were released and able to save the lives of Picard and La Forge. Picard understood the predicament that Data was faced with as he had defended Data's sentience just a few years previously but this time the exocomps had no advocate and Data felt compelled to act on their behalf. Picard considered Data's actions to be the most "Human" decision that he had ever made. ( TNG : " The Quality of Life ")

Later that year, following an accident in main engineering that activated a dormant program in his positronic brain, Data sought advice from several officers, including Captain Picard, on his "visions." Picard was curious why Data was studying thousands of different cultures to interpret his visions. Data said that he had no culture of his own but Picard told Data that he did have a culture a culture of one and that its validity was no less than that of a billion. Picard suggested that Data should consider what the visions meant to him instead of what they meant to other people. ( TNG : " Birthright, Part I ")

After a malfunctioning emotion chip fused with Data's positronic net in 2371, Data felt guilty for not saving La Forge from capture by Tolian Soran on board the Amargosa observatory. Data was overwhelmed by emotions and requested being shut down until the chip could be removed. Although Picard felt sympathy for Data, he told him that part of having emotions was integrating them into your life and learning to live with them and denied Data his request. ( Star Trek Generations )

In 2373 (when the Enterprise-E traveled back to the year 2063 on Earth), Picard and Data initially went down to the planet to observe the damage the Borg had done to Zefram Cochrane's missile complex in Montana. Down in the missile silo of the Phoenix, Picard, upon touching the missile that would make history by becoming the first Human starship traveling at warp, explained to Data that sometimes a touch can make objects more "real." Upon suspecting Borg presence aboard the Enterprise, Picard and Data transported back to the ship. Fighting off the Borg near main engineering, Data was soon captured and brought to the Borg Queen. Instead of attempting to assimilate Data, the Queen made him physically more Human by attaching Human skin onto his android skeleton.

When it appeared impossible to hold off the Borg any longer, Picard was convinced to initiate the Enterprise's auto-destruct sequence and ordered all remaining crew to evacuate. He himself went on to engineering to find Data and to convince the Queen, who he had encountered several years previously, to let Data go. Picard was even prepared to take Data's place at the Queen's side, willingly, thus becoming her equal. However, Data claimed he did not wish to go even after the Queen ordered him away. Thus, the Queen ordered Picard's assimilation, but not before witnessing the destruction of the Phoenix by Data.

Data fired a spread of quantum torpedoes but they missed by the smallest of margins, and quickly thereafter he burst a plasma coolant tank, releasing plasma coolant, which would liquefy organic material on contact, killing the Borg. The Queen was killed, but Picard survived. While helping Data to his feet, Picard asked him if he was ever tempted to join the Borg's cause. Data, hinting at his kiss with the Queen, replied that for a fraction of a second (zero point six eight seconds), he was. He added that for an android, this brief moment was like an eternity. ( Star Trek: First Contact )

Following the wedding of William Riker and Deanna Troi in 2379, Data was confused by Captain Picard's mixed feelings for the couple – although the captain was happy that Riker was due to accept promotion to the rank of Captain and take command of the USS Titan and that his new wife was to transfer over to the Titan and take position as the ship's counselor, Picard was somewhat saddened by their departure and tried to explain to Data that experiencing feelings of both happiness and sadness at the same time are common in these situations.

At the climax of the Battle of the Bassen Rift, Data jumped across the void of space from the Enterprise-E to the Scimitar, saving Picard by using a prototype emergency transport unit but he sacrificed his own life to save the crew of the Enterprise by firing at the thalaron radiation generator and so destroying the Scimitar. Following the battle, Captain Picard held a toast with the Enterprise-E's senior officers as a tribute to their fallen comrade. ( Star Trek Nemesis )

Twenty years after Data's death in the Bassen Rift, Picard encountered Data's preserved consciousness in a complex quantum simulation. As Data's sacrifice had greatly weighed on Picard's mind after all this time, Data reassured Picard that he did not regret sacrificing his life to save Picard. Before Picard was brought back, Data asked Picard for a final favor in terminating his consciousness, as he wished to live knowing that his life was finite. Picard honored the request. ( PIC : " Et in Arcadia Ego, Part 2 ")

William T. Riker

William Riker first met Data on the Enterprise holodeck in 2364. Data was trying to whistle "Pop Goes the Weasel", but could not finish the last few notes. At Data's memorial service, Riker could not remember what song Data was trying to whistle. ( Star Trek Nemesis ) Riker helped him finish the tune, later giving Data the nickname "Pinocchio", in reference to Data's wish to become Human. At first, Riker was skeptical about Data's abilities as a machine, assuming his rank of lieutenant commander was merely honorary. Despite Riker's misconception, Data had earned his rank, just as every other Starfleet officer of the same rank and above had done. ( TNG : " Encounter at Farpoint ")

In 2365, Data's status as a sentient individual came into question. A hearing was held on Starbase 173, but the base lacked a complete legal staff. As first officer of the Enterprise, Riker was forced to act as counsel for Bruce Maddox and was given the task of convincing Judge Phillipa Louvois that as an android, Data was the property of Starfleet. Riker very nearly proved that Data was property by means of deactivating him. Picard's defense later made Louvois hold that Data was a machine, was not the property of Starfleet, and had the right to choose whether to comply with Maddox's requests to study him. Riker was distressed over the incident, and he felt terrible that he had nearly cost Data his rights. Data did not hold any ill will towards Riker or Maddox on the contrary, Data was actually grateful that Riker participated, telling Riker that if he did not, the initial ruling being appealed would have remained in Maddox's favor, and by Riker going against his conscience and potentially condemning his friend and colleague to be disassembled, that action wounded him in order to save Data's life, and was something Data would never forget. ( TNG : " The Measure Of A Man ")

Data sought Riker's help and advice on several occasions. One instance was when he asked for Riker's advice on friendship and betrayal, following a mission involving Ishara Yar in 2367. ( TNG : " Legacy ") Data also asked for Riker's help when Keiko Ishikawa temporarily called off her wedding to Miles O'Brien in 2367. ( TNG : " Data's Day ") He came to Riker once more for advice when he started to date Jenna D'Sora. ( TNG : " In Theory ")

Geordi La Forge

Data assists Geordi La Forge with his VISOR on Vagra II

Data's closest friend during his time aboard the Enterprise was Geordi La Forge. As of 2367, Data considered La Forge to be his best friend. ( TNG : " Data's Day ") Because Data was an android, La Forge was better equipped to effect repairs and maintenance on him than was Dr. Crusher as chief medical officer. Their long-term friendship dated back to 2364, when both were assigned as bridge officers aboard the vessel. La Forge's promotion to chief engineer the next year reflected his expertise with machinery, though he experienced difficulties in establishing relationships with other people, especially women. These personality traits may have accounted for La Forge's ability to so easily maintain a relationship with a sentient machine such as Data that being said, La Forge never saw Data as an android or a machine per se, but as a close friend and treated him no differently than he would have if Data were a sentient biological organism. ( Star Trek Generations TNG : " Encounter at Farpoint ", " Code of Honor ", " Booby Trap ", " Galaxy's Child ", " Eye of the Beholder ")

Data with La Forge at his memorial service

Their friendship was tested in early 2370, during the Enterprise's encounter with the individualized Borg. Lore used the emotion chip stolen from Dr. Noonian Soong to influence Data to join him, deactivating Data's ethical program and transmitting negative emotions (such as hatred, sadism, and anger) to Data. While under Lore's influence, Data participated in a neurological experiment with La Forge as the primary subject. The experiment caused La Forge a great deal of pain and would have eventually resulted in La Forge's death. Fortunately, Captain Picard and others of the Enterprise crew were able to reactivate Data's ethical program. It was Data's friendship with La Forge that eventually allowed the android to overcome his brother's influence. ( TNG : " Descent, Part II ")

La Forge reluctantly agreeing to install Data's emotion chip

In 2371, following an incident on the holodeck in which Data pushed Dr. Crusher off a sailboat in the water, Data decided to finally have the emotion chip Dr. Soong gave him years earlier installed in his neural net. La Forge assisted Data by installing the chip after the latter made this life-changing decision, though La Forge later reacted negatively to his friend's erratic behavior that accompanied the initial acquisition of emotions. When La Forge was later threatened by Dr. Soran aboard the Amargosa observatory, Data was afraid to intervene, but he later learned to live with his newly acquired emotions. ( Star Trek Generations ) When Data secretly transported himself to the Scimitar to save Picard, La Forge helped him do it, knowing this would be the last time the friends would see each other. ( Star Trek Nemesis )

Beverly Crusher

Crusher teaching Data to dance

Dr. Beverly Crusher and Data had a special relationship, with Data seeking advice from Crusher on subjects ranging from parenting ( TNG : " The Offspring ") to dancing. She taught Data to tap dance, not knowing that he had intended to learn how to dance for the wedding of Miles O'Brien and Keiko Ishikawa. ( TNG : " Data's Day ") Data also came to her for advice on whether or not to consider the exocomps alive, and she was present when Data learned they were indeed sentient. ( TNG : " The Quality of Life ")

As the ship's chief medical officer, Dr. Crusher had some knowledge of how to repair and "heal" Data, though mostly it was Geordi La Forge who filled that function, since Data was an artificial lifeform. ( TNG : " Datalore ", " The Game ")

In 2369, Data incorporated a subroutine for small talk. At the recommendation of Captain Picard, he studied Commander Hutchinson while the Enterprise underwent a baryon sweep at Arkaria Base. Dr. Crusher was the first person Data tried to engage in small talk using his observations of Hutchinson, to her astonishment and delight. ( TNG : " Starship Mine ")

During Worf's promotion ceremony in 2371, Dr. Crusher tried to explain to Data the humor behind Worf being dunked after walking the plank on the holodeck recreation of the sailing ship Enterprise. Data did not completely understand and then pushed Crusher into the water, as an attempt at the same type of humor. However, Dr. Crusher and the rest of the senior staff did not find it nearly as amusing. La Forge later recommended that Data stay out of sickbay for a few days following the ceremony. ( Star Trek Generations ) In 2379, Dr. Crusher remarked that she thought Data had nicer eyes than his predecessor, B-4. ( Star Trek Nemesis )

Data enjoyed an excellent professional relationship and a solid, if low-key, friendship with the cantankerous Klingon. They had two important things in common: first, both were rescued by the Federation after their homes were destroyed by enemy attacks, instilling in each of them a high regard for the Federation's ideals. Second, both were Starfleet pioneers Data and Worf were, respectively, the first android and Klingon Starfleet officers. Although most of their time together was in the line of duty (such as bridge duty and away missions), both were frequent participants in the senior staff's poker games, and they often spent time together off-duty in Ten Forward. Moreover, Worf was one of the only people that Spot, Data's cat, warmed up to, even though Worf was not fond of the feline.

When Data's shuttlecraft exploded while returning to the Enterprise-D in 2366, all Worf could do was stare in shock at the viewscreen and mutter his friend's name. As it turned out, the explosion was staged in order to kidnap Data, and he was subsequently rescued. ( TNG : " The Most Toys ")

In 2367, Data sought Worf's help in finding a wedding present for Miles and Keiko O'Brien. ( TNG : " Data's Day ")

When Geordi La Forge and Ensign Ro Laren were presumed dead in a transporter accident in 2368, Data volunteered to arrange the memorial service, but he was unsure about what kind of ceremony to have and asked Worf for advice. Worf told him that for Klingons, an honorable death in the line of duty was a cause for celebration, not mourning. Data took his advice and arranged a very upbeat party, giving people the chance to share their pleasant memories of the 'deceased'. ( TNG : " The Next Phase ")

A year later, Data again sought Worf's guidance, this time in researching the "dreams" he was having. Worf, preoccupied with rumors that his father had survived the attack on Khitomer, gave Data some cryptic answers, but Data seemed to understand what he was saying and went on his way. Data later returned this favor when Worf learned that the apparently returned Kahless the Unforgettable was actually a clone of the legendary Klingon Data's reflections about how, after learning of his android nature, he chose to consider himself a person who could progress and grow over time rather than a machine who would never be more than the sum of its parts, convinced Worf to accept Kahless as the symbol that he could be for his own people rather than define him by the circumstances of his origins. ( TNG : " Birthright, Part I ", " Rightful Heir ")

Their friendship was severely tested in 2370 when Data, acting as commanding officer, admonished Worf for challenging his orders in front of the bridge crew. Afterward, Data apologized to Worf if the dressing-down had ended their friendship, but Worf took the high road, saying that if the friendship was in jeopardy, it was his fault alone. After that exchange, their working and personal relationship quickly returned to normal. ( TNG : " Gambit, Part II ")

Katherine Pulaski

When Dr. Pulaski came aboard the Enterprise in 2365, she was not very kind toward Data, because of her discomfort with technology. She saw him as no more than a machine, pronouncing his name "DAT-uh" rather than "DAY-ta," and did not understand that he had a preference. ( TNG : " The Child ") She was also condescending towards Data and often spoke to him through other crewmembers. ( TNG : " Where Silence Has Lease ") She believed that Data's methodical way of looking at situations meant that he could never solve a traditional Sherlock Holmes mystery, which led to the creation of the program which brought about the sentient Professor Moriarty. ( TNG : " Elementary, Dear Data ")

However, later during the year, she began to value Data and look upon him as an equal and as a sentient individual. The major turning point was during the crisis surrounding the Darwin Station children. Data stayed to support Pulaski for a long period of time after she had become infected, something for which she was very grateful. ( TNG : " Unnatural Selection ") Pulaski even challenged master Zakdorn strategist Sirna Kolrami to a game of Strategema, believing that Data could win. When Data was unsuccessful, he interpreted it as a possible weakness and relieved himself of duty. Dr. Pulaski talked to Data and made him realize that one letdown did not necessarily mean total failure and encouraged him to return to duty, but with no success. Finally, Captain Picard told Data that a loss can be had with no mistakes made and convinced him to return to duty. Data later forced Kolrami to a stalemate, much to Kolrami's chagrin. ( TNG : " Peak Performance ")


Tasha Yar observed that Data viewed the world with the wonder of a child. During his service Data had befriended several children. Data befriended an alien girl named Sarjenka in violation of the prime directive. To mitigate the damage, Picard ordered Dr. Pulaski to erase Sarjenka's memory. ( TNG : " Pen Pals ") Data befriended a ten-year-old boy named Timothy after Timothy was orphaned in the explosion that destroyed the Vico. Timothy wanted to be incapable of emotion like Data because he wrongfully blamed himself for the Vico's destruction, so he pretended to be an android and attempted to mimic Data in every way. ( TNG : " Hero Worship ") Data befriended an alien girl named Gia when he lost his memory on Barkon IV. This friendship was similar to his friendship with Sarjenka, only this time, it was Data who lost all memory of the friendship, and the child who would never forget him. ( TNG : " Thine Own Self ")


As an unemotional member of the crew, and a respected advisor to the captain, Data shared many similarities to Spock on board the first USS Enterprise. However, where Spock often believed himself to be superior to Humans, Data aspired to be more Human (Data once stated that having no emotions made him closer to Vulcans than Humans, but he found their stark philosophy to be limited). The contrast between the two was instantly apparent to them when they met on Romulus. Spock noted that Data's complete lack of emotion and superior physical capabilities were qualities to which Vulcans aspired, but Data wished to be more Human. Data noted that as a half-Human, Spock abandoned what Data had sought his entire life by choosing the Vulcan way of life. ( TNG : " Unification I ", " Unification II ")


Data was programmed with multiple techniques and was "fully functional." Data had a sexual relationship with Natasha Yar during the influence of polywater intoxication and attempted a romantic relationship with Jenna D'Sora in late 2367. ( TNG : " The Naked Now ", " In Theory ") In 2373, the Borg Queen seduced him in an attempt to convince Data to join the Borg's cause. ( Star Trek: First Contact )

Natasha Yar

Tasha Yar and Data under the influence of polywater intoxication in 2364

Data had a short sexual relationship with Natasha Yar in 2364. Yar was at least slightly attracted to Data and had sex with him while under the influence of polywater intoxication. She later told him that the incident "never happened." ( TNG : " The Naked Now ") Data, since he has perfect memory (he can remember everything that has ever happened to him like it just happened), still felt a special connection to Tasha. He kept a holographic image of Tasha to remember her. When Data's rights as a sentient being were called into question, his romantic encounter with Tasha was a strong influence for Judge Phillipa Louvois to rule that Data was in fact a sentient lifeform. ( TNG : " The Measure Of A Man ") La Forge and Wesley Crusher found the holoimage when they visited Data's quarters after his apparent death in 2366. ( TNG : " The Most Toys ")

Jenna D'Sora

In late 2367, Lieutenant Jenna D'Sora found herself in love with Data. After she expressed her affection for him by kissing him on the lips, Data asked his friends for advice on what to do, and decided to pursue the relationship. Since he had no real emotions or feelings, Data created a special program in his neural net to guide him through the intricacies of love. However, as his relationship with Jenna progressed, Data discovered that in romance, the logical course is not always the most appropriate.

Later that year, they decided to end their relationship. D'Sora explained that her previous boyfriend had been unemotional, and felt that her choice of Data, an android completely incapable of emotion, indicated a pattern. Without a second thought, Data, seeing the validity of her point, agreed to discontinue his program. ( TNG : " In Theory ")

Borg Queen

In 2063, during the Borg attack on the Enterprise-E, which had arrived from the year 2373, Data was abducted by a Borg drone. Unable to assimilate the android, the Borg Queen attempted to bribe Data into subservience by offering him live flesh instead of his polymer. Data played along, having suggested sexual relations with the Borg Queen, who wanted him as a partner to ease the loneliness of her role as the one individual in the Collective, Data essentially 'replacing' Locutus. Data ultimately betrayed the Borg Queen, killing her with warp engine coolant, which also removed the new flesh she had grafted onto him. He subsequently admitted to Picard that a part of him was still sorry about her death, noting that her offer to bring him closer to Humanity had briefly tempted him (albeit for only 0.68 seconds, a duration that, according to Data, equates – for an android – to "nearly an eternity"). ( Star Trek: First Contact )

Early Benjamin Stoddert DDG22 INFORMATION PAGE

Next is a picture of crew USS Benjamin Stoddert hat. Over the years there were several hats used. Some early photos I seen showed hats with the ships crest. Some latter pictures I seen Just have DDG-22 on them. But the most common throughout most of the time it looked like the one below.

Pacific 10/30/71: The USS Benjamin Stoddert (DDG-22) suffers a four-and-a-half hour fire in the motor generator set room while undergoing overhaul at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

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DNI Appoints New Director of Public Affairs


ODNI News Release No. 27-14
June 12, 2014


Veteran public communicator Brian P. Hale has joined the Office of the Director of National Intelligence as its director of public affairs.

&ldquoWe are fortunate to have someone of Brian&rsquos caliber with over 20 years of professional communications experience across both the private and public sector,&rdquo said Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper. &ldquoI commend Brian for his professional accomplishments and look forward to leveraging his strategic communications experience across the Intelligence Community.&rdquo

Prior to joining ODNI, Hale served as the assistant director of the Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, where he was responsible for ICE's internal and external communications.

He previously served in the National Press Office in the Office of Public Affairs at the FBI in Washington, D.C., where he handled international and national media inquiries and served as a spokesman for the FBI on matters related to counterterrorism, weapons of mass destruction and operational technology.

Hale replaces Shawn Turner who recently joined the White House Press Office as deputy press secretary. &ldquoShawn is a true visionary who unified and strengthened public affairs across the Intelligence Community and helped us become a more transparent IC,&rdquo said Clapper. &ldquoHe set a high bar for poise and professionalism through one of the toughest years in IC history. While we will miss him and his calm demeanor, I know he will continue to do great things for our nation.&rdquo

Prior to joining the FBI, Hale was press relations manager for Patton Boggs as the primary media liaison and spokesperson for the firm. Before joining Patton Boggs, Hale served as a field producer for ABC's 20/20 news magazine, where he worked on several international and national stories, including Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Washington, D.C. sniper investigation and the 9/11 attacks.

Hale has received several broadcast journalism team coverage awards for 9/11 coverage, including a News Emmy Award 2002, the George S. Peabody Award 2002 and a Columbia DuPont Journalism Award 2002. He also received the CINE Eagle Award 2001 for coverage of the "Bombing of USS Cole," and a News Emmy nomination 2003 for "Outstanding Coverage of a Breaking News Event. At ICE, Hale&rsquos strategic communications team created the Operation Predator App which was nominated for the 2014 App of the Year by PR News.

Hale holds a master&rsquos degree in international relations and a bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Kentucky.