Review: Volume 23

Review: Volume 23


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  • Medieval History
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OLR devotes itself to outstanding writing in deconstruction, literary theory, psychoanalytic theory, political theory and related forms of exploratory thought. Founded in 1977 it remains responsive to new concerns and committed to patient, inventive reading as the wellspring of critical research. It has published work by many trailblazing thinkers and seeks to take forward the movement of deconstructive thought in the face of as many forms and institutions as possible.

The journal publishes both general issues and special issues, each of the latter featuring a provocative theme (e.g. ‘The Word of War’, ‘Telepathies,’ or ‘Disastrous Blanchot’). It invites relevant contributions across a wide range of intellectual disciplines on issues and writers belonging to or engaging the work of deconstructive thinking (such as Derrida, Heidegger, Blanchot, Levinas, Irigaray, and others).

Editors and Editorial Board

Editors

Managing Editor: Geoffrey Bennington (Emory University)
Timothy Clark (University of Durham)
Peggy Kamuf (University of Southern California)
Michael Naas (De Paul University)
Nicholas Royle (University of Sussex)

Book Reviews Editor

Ronald Mendoza-De Jesús (University of Southern California)

Advisory Board

Graham Allen (University College Cork)
Branka Arsić (Columbia University)
Derek Attridge (York University )
Homi Bhabha (Harvard University)
Rachel Bowlby (University College London)
Clare Connors (University of East Anglia)
Arne De Boever (California Institute of the Arts)
Thomas Dutoit (University of Lille III)
Maud Ellmann (University of Chicago)
Silvano Facioni (Univesità di Cosenza)
Matthias Fritsch (Concordia University)
Samir Haddad (Fordham University)
John Higgins (University of Cape Town)
Elissa Marder (Emory University)
Anthony Mellors (Birmingham City University)
Laurent Milesi (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
Timothy Morton (Rice University)
Jeffrey T. Nealon (The Pennsylvania State University)
Eric Prenowitz (University of Leeds)
Avital Ronell (New York University)
Caroline Rooney (University of Kent)
Marta Segarra (University of Barcelona)
Tanja Staehler (Sussex University)
Ashley Thompson (SOAS, University of London)
Francesco Vitale (University of Salerno)
Patricia Waugh (Durham University)
Samuel Weber (Northwestern University)
David Wills (Brown University)
Robert J. C. Young (New York University)

Indexing

Oxford Literary Review is abstracted and indexed in the following:


The first number came out about the middle of October 1773, and it was discontinued after the publication of the number for August 1776. Early advantages were negated by Stuart's tendency to pursue private vendettas against lawyers and other historians William Smellie the printer struggled to contain him. Stuart's slashing article on the Elements of Criticism by Lord Kames, was completely metamorphosed by Smellie. Stuart sometimes had his own way: when David Hume reviewed and praised the second volume of Robert Henry's History of Great Britain, the article was cancelled and one by Stuart substituted for it, which went the other extreme. [1] Behind Smellie was William Creech, who launched a number of periodicals. [2]

The climax was reached in an article by Stuart and A. Gillies, written over the protests of Smellie, on Lord Monboddo's Origin and Progress of Language. It was scurrilous and abusive, ran through several numbers of the fifth volume, and caused the magazine to be stopped. [1]

The major writers, in addition to Stuart, were William Richardson of Glasgow, William Baron, Thomas Blacklock, Rev. Alexander Gillies, and Smellie. [1]


Contents

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the southeast limit of the Gulf of Mexico as: [6]

The consensus among geologists [3] [7] [8] who have studied the geology of the Gulf of Mexico is that before the Late Triassic, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist. Before the Late Triassic, the area now occupied by the Gulf of Mexico consisted of dry land, which included continental crust that now underlies Yucatán, within the middle of the large supercontinent of Pangea. This land lay south of a continuous mountain range that extended from north-central Mexico, through the Marathon Uplift in West Texas and the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma, and to Alabama where it linked directly to the Appalachian Mountains. It was created by the collision of continental plates that formed Pangea. As interpreted by Roy Van Arsdale and Randel T. Cox, this mountain range was breached in Late Cretaceous times by the formation of the Mississippi Embayment. [9] [10]

Geologists and other Earth scientists agree in general that the present Gulf of Mexico basin originated in Late Triassic time as the result of rifting within Pangea. [11] The rifting was associated with zones of weakness within Pangea, including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, and African plates collided to create it. First, there was a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic phase of rifting during which rift valleys formed and filled with continental red beds. Second, as rifting progressed through Early and Middle Jurassic times, the continental crust was stretched and thinned. This thinning created a broad zone of transitional crust, which displays modest and uneven thinning with block faulting, and a broad zone of uniformly thinned transitional crust, which is half the typical 40-kilometer (25 mi) thickness of normal continental crust. It was at this time that rifting first created a connection to the Pacific Ocean across central Mexico and later eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. This flooded the opening basin to create the Gulf of Mexico as an enclosed marginal sea. While the Gulf of Mexico was a restricted basin, the subsiding transitional crust was blanketed by the widespread deposition of Louann Salt and associated anhydrite evaporites. During the Late Jurassic, continued rifting widened the Gulf of Mexico and progressed to the point that sea-floor spreading and formation of oceanic crust occurred. At this point, sufficient circulation with the Atlantic Ocean was established that the deposition of Louann Salt ceased. [7] [8] [12] [13] Seafloor spreading stopped at the end of Jurassic time, about 145–150 million years ago.

During the Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, the basin occupied by the Gulf of Mexico experienced a period of cooling and subsidence of the crust underlying it. The subsidence was the result of a combination of crustal stretching, cooling, and loading. Initially, the combination of crustal stretching and cooling caused about 5–7 km (3.1–4.3 mi) of tectonic subsidence of the central thin transitional and oceanic crust. Because subsidence occurred faster than sediment could fill it, the Gulf of Mexico expanded and deepened. [7] [13] [14]

Later, loading of the crust within the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent coastal plain by the accumulation of kilometers of sediments during the rest of the Mesozoic and all of the Cenozoic further depressed the underlying crust to its current position about 10–20 km (6.2–12.4 mi) below sea level. Particularly during the Cenozoic, thick clastic wedges built out the continental shelf along the northwestern and northern margins of the Gulf of Mexico. [7] [13] [14]

To the east, the stable Florida platform was not covered by the sea until the latest Jurassic or the beginning of Cretaceous time. The Yucatán platform was emergent until the mid-Cretaceous. After both platforms were submerged, the formation of carbonates and evaporites has characterized the geologic history of these two stable areas. Most of the basin was rimmed during the Early Cretaceous by carbonate platforms, and its western flank was involved during the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene periods in a compressive deformation episode, the Laramide Orogeny, which created the Sierra Madre Oriental of eastern Mexico. [15]

In 2002 geologist Michael Stanton published a speculative essay suggesting an impact origin for the Gulf of Mexico at the close of the Permian, which could have caused the Permian–Triassic extinction event. [16] However, Gulf Coast geologists do not regard this hypothesis as having any credibility. Instead they overwhelmingly accept plate tectonics, not an asteroid impact, as having created the Gulf of Mexico as illustrated by papers authored by Kevin Mickus and others. [3] [8] [13] [17] This hypothesis is not to be confused with the Chicxulub Crater, a large impact crater on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico on the Yucatán Peninsula. Increasingly, the Gulf of Mexico is regarded as a back-arc basin behind the Jurassic Nazas Arc of Mexico. [18]

In 2014 Erik Cordes of Temple University and others discovered a brine pool 3,300 feet (1,000 m) below the gulf's surface, with a circumference of 100 feet (30 m) and 12 feet (3.7 m) feet deep, which is four to five times saltier than the rest of the water. The first exploration of the site was unmanned, using Hercules and in 2015 a team of three used the deep submergence vehicle Alvin. The site cannot sustain any kind of life other than bacteria, mussels with a symbiotic relationship, tube worms and certain kinds of shrimp. It has been called the "Jacuzzi of Despair". Because it is warmer than the surrounding water (65 °F or 18 °C compared to 39 °F or 4 °C), animals are attracted to it, but cannot survive once they enter it. [19]

Today, the Gulf of Mexico has the following seven main areas: [15]

    , which contains the Sigsbee Deep and can be further divided into the continental rise, the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain, and the Mississippi Cone. , which extends from a point east of the Mississippi River Delta near Biloxi to the eastern side of Apalachee Bay. , which extends along the coast from Apalachee Bay to the Straits of Florida and includes the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas , which extends from the Yucatán Straits in the east to the Tabasco–Campeche Basin in the west and includes Arrecife Alacran. , which is an isthmian embayment extending from the western edge of Campeche Bank to the offshore regions just east of the port of Veracruz. , which is located between Veracruz to the south and the Rio Grande to the north. , which extends from Alabama to the Rio Grande.

Pre-Columbian Edit

As early as the Maya Civilization, the Gulf of Mexico was used as a trade route off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula and present-day Veracruz.


Contents

Initial pre-publication publicity utilized the tagline "Mark Waid is Evil! Mark Waid is Irredeemable!", [2] [3] which culminated with the release of a limited edition "Mark Waid is Evil" tee-shirt at the 2009 New York Comic Con. [4] On February 23, 2009, Boom! Studios released a trailer, by Craig Kennedy at CK Creative, for the series on YouTube and posted the first 7 pages of the first issue on the company website. [5]

The first issue, which included an afterword by Grant Morrison, featured a cover by John Cassaday, a 1-in-4 variant cover by Barry Kitson, and a 1-in-50 incentive cover signed by Mark Waid with artwork by Jeffrey Spokes. The incentive variants by Spokes for the first 12 issues of the series will spell out Irredeemable, with one letter being featured on each cover. [2] A silver holofoil edition, limited to 500 copies with a cover stating "Mark Waid is Evil", was released at the 2009 Emerald City Convention. [6] The first issue sold out of Diamond Comics Distribution on the day of release, which caused the publisher to immediately solicit a second printing of the comic. The second printing's cover is a sketch version of Kitson variant and a 1-in-20 incentive reprinting of the Spokes cover, not signed by Waid. [7]

In April 2011, Krause announced that he would be leaving the series to focus on opportunities outside of comics. Krause claimed that he made the decision in February 2011 after finding himself facing stress and deadlines from multiple commitments. These commitments resulted in art duties for multiple issues of the series being shared between Krause, who drew pages involving the Plutonian, and Diego Barreto, who drew pages relating to the Paradigm. [8] Starting with Irredeemable #29 in September 2011, Krause officially left the series, being replaced by Diego and his father Eduardo Barreto. [9]

On February 3, 2012, Waid announced that he was bringing both Irredeemable and Incorruptible to an end with issues #37 and #30 respectively in May 2012. Waid stated that he was "stretched thin right now both personally and professionally", and that the cast of Irredeemable were moving naturally towards the series ending he had planned, and so Waid desired to "go out big and grand". Waid did not rule out revisiting the Irredeemable series in the future to explore some of the characters but intimated that this would not be possible for some of them, following the series' end. [10]

Mark Waid on the basis for Irredeemable [11]

Irredeemable is author Mark Waid's third and "most complex" story concerning the "cost of superheroics" or the "path of villainy". [2] [12] Kingdom Come concerned the "ethical price of heroism" and Empire premised the ultimate failure of superheroes, but Irredeemable is "about how the lessons we learn about right and wrong as children can become warped and twisted when challenged by the realities of the adult world." [12] Waid realized that the concept was one he could never properly explore at either DC or Marvel Comics, [12] a "Twilight of the Superheroes"-style story revolving around the premise of "how does a man go from being the world’s greatest superhero to its greatest supervillain?" [2] [13]

Waid's premise stems from the rejection of the idea that, in "superhero comics, pretty much everyone who’s called upon to put on a cape is, at heart, emotionally equipped for the job." [2] He expounds of this by stating that:

The beauty of Superman is that he can deal with that level of adulation without it going to his head, without it warping him, but he's a very special individual. We presume, whenever we write superheroes and we come up with superhero origins, that anybody who gets the powers of a superhero — even if they are like Spider-Man and they've got things they've got to work out that issue and responsibility and power and responsibility — we assume that they eventually have the emotional makeup it takes to overcome these things. Well, what if you gave that level of power to someone who, at heart, didn't have that emotional capability? [11]

Waid further notes that, "by the classic superhero rules," a hero can't concern themselves with what people think of them, but that if "you are so far removed as to not care what people think of you, it takes one less step to not care what people think." [11]

During the 2011 San Diego Comic-Con International, Waid stated that he had developed ideas for ending the story but had no end issue planned while sales of the book continued. During the same event, he added that he did not have any intention of rehabilitating the Plutonian character or redeeming him for his actions, saying "There's no hope for Plutonian. but that said, I never actually said the title Irredeemable refers to Plutonian." [14]

Volume 1 (#1–4) Edit

The Plutonian, a powerful being once thought to be the world's greatest superhero, has now become its greatest supervillain. He has destroyed Sky City — the metropolis he once protected — and murdered millions of people across the globe. The series starts with the Plutonian killing his former ally, the Hornet, and his entire family. The remaining superheroes, the Paradigm — Bette Noir, Scylla, Charybdis (Cary), Volt, Qubit, Gil, and Kaidan — search for the reason behind Plutonian's change by speaking to his former sidekick Samsara, whom Plutonian lobotomized.

Former enemies of Plutonian attempt to work with him, but they immediately betray him when he offers a way to earn his trust, resulting in a self-destruct of the facility in which they are meeting. The resulting explosion kills Scylla and injures Cary, superhero brothers who are observing the villains.

The United Nations offer Plutonian their subservience, hoping to avoid his wrath. The Plutonian takes offense when, after speaking to the Singaporean representative, he realizes that the decision is made out of fear. In response, Plutonian sinks Singapore into the ocean. Meanwhile, Qubit searches for Modeus, the Plutonian's nemesis, using multiple robots designed to look and think like the villain. [15]

Volume 2 (#5–8) Edit

Qubit and the other heroes discover Modeus' location within Plutonian's citadel. Plutonian is alerted to the heroes' hidden location and attacks them. Cary waits to confront Plutonian while the others teleport into his lair. Cary reveals that he is aware that Plutonian, when he was still a hero, used alien technology recovered from an invasion to buy the silence of a scientist who was a vociferous Plutonian critic due to the latter's tight control of said technology. Plutonian thought the technology was safe and believed the scientist to be sincere in his criticism, but subsequent tampering released a virus that resulted in the deaths of many children. Plutonian tried to conceal his involvement in the event, but when Samsara learned the truth, Plutonian snapped, enraged that no matter what he attempts to do, people are terrified of him.

Plutonian attempts to kill Cary, but Cary reveals that his brother's death has made him significantly more powerful. The rest of the Paradigm returns, having failed to locate Modeus, but they have recovered Plutonian's captive Encanta. The group witness Cary beat Plutonian into submission. Plutonian flees and hides in Samsara's grave. [16]

Volume 3 (#9–12) Edit

Qubit teleports to his base with Encanta, believing she may know how to find Modeus. Encanta details how Modeus had her cast a spell that would put him in the "safest place on Earth". Samsara's restorative powers revive him in his grave to Plutonian's gratitude, but it is revealed that Modeus secretly possesses Samsara's body. Meanwhile, in response to Cary's new power, the US military summons the demon Orian to destroy the heroes entirely. Orian kidnaps Bette to use as bait and learns of her secret past by threatening her husband Gil's life. Bette reveals that she had an affair with Plutonian before his fall, using a magical candle that renders Plutonian mortal to allow them to have sex. Bette stole a piece of the candle wax, but she did not tell the other Paradigm members about it, fearing that her affair would be exposed. The Paradigm confront Orian, but even Cary is unable to compete with his power. The military captures the team, except for a fleeing Bette, and Cary, who is dragged away by Orian into his own dimension. [17]

Volume 4 (#13–15) Edit

Encanta is teleported from Qubit's lab by a rogue Modeus robot that is revealed to be in possession of Scylla, who is still alive. Cary and Orian return to Earth, agreeing to work together to kill Plutonian. Bette liberates Qubit, Kaidan, and Volt from prison, but she finds that Gil has already escaped. The group teleport to Bette's home to retrieve the wax fragment that she has crafted into a bullet, but Gil has already taken it. Cary, Orian, Gil, and Bette confront Plutonian. While they fight, Modeus/Samsara pushes Volt over a cliff to his death. Bette shoots at Plutonian with the wax bullet, but Qubit uses his portals to redirect the bullet and kill Orian, having correctly surmised that Orian intended to invade Earth after Plutonian's death. Plutonian and Samsara retreat, and the Paradigm shun Qubit for wasting the opportunity to stop Plutonian. It is revealed that Qubit retrieved the wax bullet after it killed Orian. [18]

Volume 5 (#16–19) Edit

At Volt's funeral, Kaidan discovers she can summon the spirits of her fallen comrades. For their alliance with Orian, Cary destroys the controls for the US nuclear arsenal, making them dependent on the Paradigm's power. Elsewhere, Modeus/Samsara offers Plutonian a chance to undo his actions. Kaidan realizes that Scylla is alive when she fails to summon his spirit. Modeus/Samsara and Plutonian travel to Sky City with a magical gem. Plutonian laments that only Modeus could figure out how to use the gem to restore Sky City, and he reminisces about the time he realized that Modeus was in love with him. Plutonian reveals that he is aware of Modeus' possession of Samsara and burns off Samsara's face. Qubit shows Kaidan and Cary a recording made by Hornet prior to his death, detailing a deal he made with the aliens the Vespan when they invaded Earth the locations of habitable alien worlds in exchange for them leaving Earth alone, but returning to subdue the Plutonian if he ever turned evil. Hornet activated the signal to the Vespan before he was killed. The Vespan arrive and subdue Plutonian with advanced technology. The rogue Modeus robot and Encanta find the injured Modeus/Samsara and transfer Modeus into the robot's body. Plutonian is taken off world, kept passive in an artificial reality where he is still a hero. [19]

Volume 6 (#20–23) Edit

Cary takes credit for Plutonian's defeat and offers amnesty to supervillains that join the Paradigm to help rebuild the Earth. Plutonian is fitted with an exoskeleton to put his unconscious body to work mining on an alien world the Vespan find they cannot awaken him from his fantasy. Qubit confronts Cary, accusing him of not searching for Scylla out of fear of losing his new power. Cary threatens to tell the world that Qubit spared Plutonian's life. Modeus plots to return Plutonian to Earth. In space, the Vespan realize that they cannot contain the Plutonian, and send him to Gehnom, an insane asylum in the heart of a sun.

On Earth, Cary uses the telepathic villain Burrows to interrogate the villains seeking amnesty to determine if their motives are pure. Qubit has Burrows secretly scan Cary and learns enough to deem him as big a threat as Plutonian. Modeus kidnaps Kaidan to force Qubit into an alliance to recover Plutonian. On Gehnom, Plutonian wakes from his fantasy to find the Auroran, a heroic figure from his dream, is present in the waking world. [20]

Volume 7 (#24–27) Edit

Qubit and Modeus travel to the Vespan homeworld and coerce Plutonian's location from the Vespan ambassador by threatening to disable the portal technology they employ that is based on Qubit's designs. On Gehnom, Plutonian and Auroran work together to escape the asylum, fighting their way through the inmates until they face Mordanse, a bestial alien. [21] They negotiate an alliance with Mordanse to escape, and they are later joined by another alien, Kurne.

On Earth, Cary tricks Burrows into revealing that he has been reading Cary's mind, learning of his increasing instability and anger. [22] On Gehnom, Plutonian's group are joined by the aliens Cutter and Mallus, the latter of whom can punch a person through time. Before they escape, Plutonian confronts Auroran about why he resembles the first person Plutonian ever saved. Auroran is unveiled as a shape-shifting symbiote feeding on Plutonian's dreams. Plutonian kills Auroran and travels with his group to the portal that will lead them from Gehnom. There, they find Qubit and Modeus waiting. Qubit remotely destroys all of his teleportation technology to prevent Plutonian's escape. Plutonian notices a blur and realizes that it is himself from the immediate future, sent back in time by Mallus' power. While Qubit believed he had teleported Plutonian's allies away, the future Plutonian had gathered his allies and traveled through the Gehnom portal to Earth. The present Plutonian fades away and Modeus' robot body falls apart, leaving Qubit and Mallus trapped on Gehnom. [23]

Volume 8 (#28–31) Edit

Witnessing Plutonian's return, the public turn against the Paradigm for promising Earth was safe. Plutonian's group assaults the new Paradigm, but stands aside as their villain recruits attack Cary for bringing them to Plutonian's attention. After peering into Plutonian's mind, Burrows hangs himself. [24] Plutonian leaves, taking some of the villain recruits with him, whom he later kills. Chinese and Japanese representatives meet with the US President to reveal their plan to kill Plutonian, which will result in the death of two billion people. Plutonian locates Bette and brings her into his group.

Elsewhere, Kaidan escapes Modeus' imprisonment, summoning Scylla's spirit to fight his mindless body. Scylla's body is killed during the battle. Kaidan and Scylla's freed spirit find Gil and recruit him to locate Elliott, Scylla and Cary's triplet brother, to stop Cary. [25] Cary meets with Elliott, who has become a priest and abandoned his powers. Bette repeatedly attempts suicide but is saved by the Plutonian. China, Japan, and the US launch their plan, releasing two towering creatures from a hidden facility, causing widespread destruction and billions of deaths. [26] Scylla, Gil, and Kaidan find Elliott with Cary, and Gil kills Cary to transfer his power into Elliott, not knowing that Cary is the source of the power. Once Cary has died, the power is lost.

Cutter confronts Bette and is revealed to be possessed by Modeus. He takes possession of Bette and discards Cutter's body. Elsewhere, the two towering alien creatures confront Plutonian, claiming to be his parents. [27]

Volume 9 (#32–33) Edit

The creatures take Plutonian to the end of time and existence, intending to leave him there. Plutonian asks them to explain how he came to be. The creatures reveal themselves as the Eleos, a race of interdimensional beings that explore and record universes. During their mission to Earth years prior, they find humans to be interesting and sacrifice a part of themselves to create a probe to explore humanity. The probe is inadvertently transformed into an infant human in response to the strong emotions of a mother who had killed her child. [28] He is later raised by Bill Hartigan, the only foster parent who is not afraid of Plutonian's powers and trains him to be a selfless superhero. After learning of his wife's inoperable cancer, Bill and his wife are killed in an accident that Plutonian believes was suicide.

Plutonian reveals that he hates his enemy Max Damage more than anyone because Max saw Plutonian as a child when he lived in the wilderness as the "wolf boy" and inspired his first act of unrestrained anger. The Eleos accept that Plutonian now feels remorse, but they abandon him at the end of time, refusing to absolve him of his crimes. [29] Qubit and Max Damage teleport to Plutonian and return him to Earth. [29] [30]

Volume 10 (#34–37) Edit

Qubit amplifies Mallus' powers to allow him to rapidly recreate his teleportation technology and escape Gehnom. Returning to find Earth devastated by radiation, and believing humanity will become extinct within three generations, Qubit recruits Max as muscle and seeks out Plutonian. When Qubit offers to make Plutonian even stronger in order to remove the radiation, Max abandons the plan and leaves. [30]

Qubit's efforts to remove the radiation fail. During a conversation about how Modeus helped create the radiation as a child, Plutonian realizes that he has possessed Cutter and flies after Bette, believing Modeus will hurt her. [30] Modeus/Bette sends Kurne after Gil and Kaidan, and captures Mordanse. Plutonian returns, but Modeus uses Bette's gravity manipulation to overpower Plutonian. Modeus uses his power to brutally beat Plutonian when his advances are rejected, but Plutonian finds himself unable to harm Bette's body. [31] Gil leads Kaidan and Scylla to the Garden of Eden. [30] Kaidan and Scylla debate planting the seeds of the Tree of Life, granting immortality to humanity and immunity from the radiation but condemning them to an eternity of torture by Plutonian and preventing Kaidan from summoning the dead. [31] Qubit confronts Modeus/Bette and convinces Plutonian to kill her body, admitting the hypocrisy of his no-killing rule. Modeus transfers himself into Qubit but is left trapped by Qubit's mental safeguards. Qubit uses Modeus' memories to discover how to stop the radiation, and Plutonian retrieves the knowledge of Bette's powers, necessary to stop the radiation. Plutonian confronts Qubit about his promise of redemption after using his time-observing power to discover that Mallus was killed sending Qubit to Earth. [32]

Qubit teleports the magic wax bullet into Plutonian's heart as a final threat, forcing Plutonian to use the last of Bette's gravity warping energy to absorb the deadly radiation by racing around the planet as fast as possible.

The plan succeeds, and the radiation is removed, but the combined energy is too much, and it fatally ravages Plutonian's body. Qubit reveals his true plan to redeem Plutonian: using his portals to transport Plutonian's original essence, as created by the Eleos, into parallel universes to give it a chance to be remade into something good. In one universe, the essence inspires two young boys, implied to be Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, to create the ultimate comic superhero, drawing a character similar in appearance to Superman.

Central Edit

The Paradigm Edit

A group of superheroes and the Plutonian's former teammates. Established four years before the beginning of the series by the Plutonian, Bette Noir, Qubit, Charybdis, Scylla, Metalman, Hornet, and Kaidan. [40] The surviving members work together to discover a means to stop the Plutonian's rampage.

Bette Noir A female crime fighter who augments her uncanny aim with customized ammunition for dealing with specific threats. Her bullets are capable of blowing buildings apart. [26] Married to Gilgamos, but has an affair with the Plutonian prior to his fall. [41] As a result of the affair, Bette possesses candle wax capable of rendering the Plutonian a mortal man, used to allow them to consummate their relationship. [41] She attempts to kill the Plutonian with a bullet crafted from the magic wax but fails due to Qubit's interference. Unable to deal with the guilt of allowing millions to die by not acting sooner, she goes into hiding. [42] Bette is discovered by the Plutonian in Irredeemable #29, living a hedonistic lifestyle while awaiting death. [25] Bette is later possessed by Modeus. [27] In Issue #35, Modeus unlocks Bette's true potential, physics altering gravity singularities. Bette was unaware of her full abilities, using them only to enhance single bullets. By chemically altering Bette's frontal lobe, Modeus gains enough strength to manipulate gravity on a scale capable of overpowering the Plutonian's ability to fly or move. Modeus is able to use her power to open wormholes of limitless range, enabling him to consume entire star systems, granting Bette's body enough power to physically injure and overwhelm the Plutonian. [31] According to Modeus, each blow capable of injuring Plutonian requires the death of a single star system. [31] At Qubit's request, Bette's body is eventually destroyed by Plutonian. [32] Charybdis/Survivor/Cary Twin and partner of Scylla. Cary possesses energy manipulation and projection powers, and he is the source of the power that Scylla employs. Following Scylla's apparent death, his share of their power is returned to Cary, who adopts the codename Survivor. With his restored strength, Cary is capable of equaling the Plutonian's power. [38] Cary is jealous of his brother's relationship with Kaidan. Her rejection of Cary's own advances, combined with his increasing responsibilities leading the Paradigm, and power lead to him becoming unstable, causing Kaidan and Qubit to plot against him, fearing he is more dangerous than Plutonian. [25] Issue #30 shows that Cary and Scylla were triplets with their brother Elliott. Cary shared his power equally among his brothers but cannot take it back until their death. Cary is killed by Gil in Issue #31 and all of his and Elliott's power is lost as a result. [27] Gilgamos/Gil A two-thousand-year-old, [43] winged warrior married to Bette Noir. Possesses superhuman strength and capable of unsupported flight. In the events surrounding the Paradigm's arrest, Gilgamos lost his wings. While the first was lost in combat against Orian, [43] he tore the second off himself after being incarcerated by the US government, using the bones within to pick the lock of his cell. [44] Following an unsuccessful attempt to kill the Plutonian and the revelation of his wife's infidelity, Gilgamos leaves the team and wanders the Earth alone. [45] Gil returns in Issue #29 when Kaidan and Scylla's ghost bring him out of retirement. [25] Kaidan/Keiko Of Japanese ancestry, the women of Kaidan's family can summon powerful spirits of folklore through verbal storytelling to fight on their behalf. [35] [46] Kaidan is initially limited to summoning the spirits of Japanese folklore, but while mourning Volt's death, she begins reminiscing about her lost comrades and unexpectedly summons their ghostly forms. [45] Kaidan and fellow member Scylla are in love, to the chagrin of his brother Cary. Qubit Possesses a genius intellect and is capable of mentally rearranging component machinery to form whatever device he imagines, including teleportation technology. [47] Dispassionate and logical, he acts as the voice of reason and conscience for the team, refusing to kill unless necessary. He repeatedly refuses to kill the Plutonian, insisting that he can be redeemed, going so far as to purposely save Plutonian's life. [48] Scylla Twin and partner of Cary. He is romantically involved with Kaidan. Scylla possesses the ability to siphon Cary's energy and use it himself, allowing him to generate energy blasts and fly, but in doing so he diminishes Cary's own power. [38] While investigating a gathering of villains attempting to join forces with Plutonian, he is caught in an explosion and seemingly killed. [36] His brain-dead but living body is later shown to be in the possession of Qubit's rogue Modeus robot and later Modeus himself. [48] When Kaidan cannot summon his ghost, she realizes that Scylla is still alive. [49] Scylla returns as a ghost in Issue #29 after Kaidan frees his spirit by killing his body. He later reveals that he and Cary are not twins but triplets. [25] Following the death of his mind, his share of Scylla's power is split evenly between Scylla and their brother Elliott. [26] Scylla willingly returns to the spirit world to save Kaidan from the alien Kurne, promising to return to her. [32] Volt An African-American hero empowered by alien energy during the Vespan invasion. [50] He is capable of emitting powerful electrical discharges from his hands, and flight via controlled release of energy from his hands. He loses the ability to fly after the Plutonian tears off his left arm. [50] When Modeus, in the body of Samsara, deems Volt a threat to Qubit's plan to save the Plutonian, he pushes Volt off a cliff to his death. [42]

Recurring Edit

Minor Edit

Initial critical reception for the series was positive, the first issue receiving 3.5 out of 5 stars from Comic Book Resources, complimenting the way the art worked with the story, [56] and 4 out of 5 stars from Major Spoilers. [57] John Hardick of The Express-Times describes the series as "on its way to becoming one of the best books of the year". [58] Stephen Joyce at Comics Bulletin praised the writing, characters and art (in particular the coloring) in the first issue, concluding "This is an amazing book! I cannot stress how much I truly enjoyed it." [59] Although the second issue was less action-packed Joyce still thought it was a "great story" and despite only being two installments in he says "I’m willing to bet that this story becomes a classic once it is completed". [60]

Accolades Edit

Year Award Category Recipient Result Ref.
2010 Eisner Award Best Continuing Series Irredeemable (Mark Waid and Peter Krause) Nominated [61]
Best Writer Mark Waid (Shared for Irredeemable and The Incredibles) Nominated
Best Cover Artist John Cassaday (Shared for Irredeemable and The Lone Ranger) Nominated
Harvey Award Best Writer Mark Waid Nominated [62]
Best New Series Irredeemable Nominated
2011 Harvey Award Best Writer Mark Waid Nominated [63]
2012 Eisner Award
Best Writer Mark Waid (Shared for Irredeemable, Incorruptible, and Daredevil) Won [64]

The series is being collected into trade paperbacks:

Volume ISBN Release Date Collected Material Pages
1 1-934506-90-7 October 6, 2009 Irredeemable #1–4 128
2 March 23, 2010 Irredeemable #5–8 128
3 July 6, 2010 Irredeemable #9–12 112
4 November 9, 2010 Irredeemable #13–15 and Special #1 112
5 February 1, 2011 Irredeemable #16–19 128
6 June 7, 2011 Irredeemable #20–23 128
7 October 4, 2011 Irredeemable #24–27 128
8 February 7, 2012 Irredeemable #28–31 128
9 June 5, 2012 Irredeemable #32–33 and Incorruptible #25–26 128
10 September 4, 2012 Irredeemable #34–37 128

Also the single hardcover Definitive Edition was published:

  • The Definitive Edition (collects issues #1–12, with extras, 304 pages, Boom! Studios, oversized, slipcased hardcover, September 2011, 978-1-60886-071-5)

On May 5, 2016, Deadline announced that 20th Century Fox was producing a film adaptation of the comic book written by Tommy Wirkola and directed by Adam McKay. [65]

In December 2009, a spin-off titled Incorruptible was released, chronicling the reformation of former supervillain—and one of Plutonian's greatest enemies—Max Damage, into a hero after he witnesses the atrocities committed by Plutonian. The series finished in June 2012 with issue #30.


Call for Papers: Ethnomusicology Review Volume 23

Ethnomusicology Review is now accepting submissions for Volume 23, scheduled for publication in Fall 2020. Started as Pacific Review of Ethnomusicology (PRE) in 1984, Ethnomusicology Review is an annual peer-reviewed journal managed by UCLA graduate students and a faculty advisory board. Our online format allows authors to rethink how they use media to present their argument and data, moving beyond the constraints of print journals. We encourage submissions that make use of video, audio, color photographs, and interactive media.

Articles are original essays of no more than 8000 words on topics related to musical practice, and will be subject to an extensive review process prior to publication. They are expected to extend current theoretical and/or methodological approaches to the study of music, broadly conceived, and may be written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives including ethnomusicology, musicology, anthropology, sociology and cultural studies. Articles explicitely engaging with contemporary ethnomusicological scholarship are particularly encouraged. Essays in languages other than English will be considered for publication, provided that qualified reviewers are available, but authors are encouraged to include an abstract written in English.


Cider Press Review Volume 23, Issue 1 is Now Online

With the beginning of April Poetry Month, we are delighted to debut a new Volume 23, Issue 1 of Cider Press Review. Read exciting new work from Kristen Rembold, Garett Stack, Reese Conner, Chris Abbate, William Palmer, Gabriel Bass, Karen Bjork Kubin, Julian Koslow, Judith Hoyer, D. Dina Friedman, Robert Claps, Carrie Meadows, David Vincenti, Doris Ferleger, Jane Medved, Josh Dugat, Scott Nickman, Beth Suter, Katie Richards, M.B. McLatchey, Nina Lindsay, and Carmen Germain. The issue also include book reviews of Angela Dribben’s Everygirl by Michael Garrigan and Connie Post’s Prime Meridian by Erica Goss.

Beginning with Volume 23, CPR is expanding to six issues per year from the previous four issues per year. Expect to see new poetry every April, June, August, October, December, and February. We are also including new audio and video files with the poems when available.

CPR will be accepting submissions of new poems for the journal through May 31, 2021.


Part Two: Books

W. T. S. Daniel The History and Origin of “The Law Reports,” London: Wildy & Sons Ltd., Frankfurt: Jauer Auvermann, 1884.

Description: The history of modern case law reporting in England with focus on the recent history of “The Law Reports” and the need for reform. The Year Books are mentioned on page 17 and briefly discusses on pages 84-86.

F. W. Maitland ed. Year Books of Edward II. 1 & 2 Edward II (A.D. 1307-1309), London: Selden Society, 1903.

Description: New edition of Year Book cases recorded between 1307-1309. Maitland’s introduction contains a lengthy discussion of the Year Books from pages ix-xx entitled “Of the Year Books in General.”

G. J. Turner ed. Year Books of Edward II. 4 Edward II (A.D. 1310-1311), London: Selden Society, 1914.

Description: New edition of Year Book cases recorded between 1310-1311. Lengthy introduction discusses the origins of the Year Books, the Abridgements, the discovery of MSS and the relations of various MSS to each other.

William Craddock Bolland The Year Books, Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press, 1921.

Description: Collection of lectures. The first Lecture (p. 1-25) is an overview of the Year Books, what they are and why they are significant. The second lecture (p. 26-53) discusses the Plea Rolls, how they differ from the Year Books, the origin of the Year Books, their printing and the work of the Selden Society. The third lecture (p. 54-82) contains translations from the Year Books illustrating life and social custom of medieval England.

William Craddock Bolland A Manual of Year Book Studies, Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press, 1925.

Description: The history and characteristics of the Year Books, the origin and evolution of manuscript production, the printed editions and their use for historical information. Appendix B contains several facsimiles of Year Book MSS all from Edward I and II, each with a reproduction of the law French and a full English translation.

W. S. Holdsworth Sources and Literature of English Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925.

Description: Based on six lectures intended to introduce law students to the historical sources of English law: statutes, cases and books of authority from all periods of English history. Chapter 3 (p. 74-111) deals with the Year Books, Reports and Abridgements.

Percy H. Winfield The Chief Sources of English Legal History, Cambridge [MA]: Harvard University Press, 1925.

Description: Introduction to the study of English legal history. In Chapter VII (p. 145-183) “Case Law,” section 2 is an overview of the Year Books as sources of case law. Section 4 is a more detailed treatment of the Year Books, their origin, content and decline. Section 4 also contains a bibliography of early black letter editions, modern editions, and secondary sources. Chapter VIII (p. 200-251) “Abridgements” contains an overview of the Year Book abridgements: Statham, Abridgement of the Book of Assises, Fitzherbert, and Brooke.

Sir Carleton Kemp Allen Law in the Making, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927.

Description: A philosophical work analyzing the various agencies by which rules of conduct attain the status of law. Chapters I and II deal with custom Chapter III, with the nature and history of precedent, including a section on the English Year Books (p. 190-203) Chapter IV, the authority and operation of precedent Chapter V, with equity and Chapters VI and VII deal with legislation.

Jacques Lambert Les Year Books de Langue Francaise, Paris: Sirey, 1928. John D. Cowley A Bibliography of Abridgements, Digests, Dictionaries and Indexes of English Law to the Year 1800, London: Selden Society, 1932.

Description: Page xxxix-l in “Abridgements of Common Law and Equity” discusses Statham, the Abridgement of the Book of Assises, Fitzherbert and Brooke and their publication. Page 1-157 is a chronological bibliography of abridgements, digests, dictionaries and indexes.

C. H. S. Fifoot English Law and Its Background, London: G. Bell and Sons Ltd., 1932.

Description: General overview of English legal history from the early middle ages to modern Britain. In Chapter III on page 83-84 the Year Books are briefly discussed.

Henri Lévy-Ullmann The English Legal Tradition, Its Sources and History, trans. from the French by M. Mitchell, and rev. and ed. by Frederic M. Goadby, foreward by W. S. Holdsworth, London: MacMillan and Co., 1935.

Description: The origin and history of English law. Part I deals with the common law, Part II with statutory law, and Part III with equity. Part I, Chapter IV (p. 89-126) discusses the Rolls, the Year Books and their printing, the Abridgements and law French generally.

Sir. William Holdsworth Some Makers of English Law, Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press, 1938.

Description: Based on a series of lectures intended to describe the most important men of English law, connecting their biographies to the history of the Common Law. Includes: Glanvil and Bracton, Edward I, Littleton and Fortescue, men of the Renaissance and Reformation, Coke, Hale, Nottingham, Holt, Mansfield, Hardwicke, Eldon, Jenkins, Stowell, the Civilians, Blackstone, Bentham, Austin, Maine, Maitland and Pollock. The Year Books are discussed throughout.

C. G. Moran The Heralds of the Law, London: Stevens & Sons Limited, 1948.

Description: A history of case reporting in England focusing primarily on Plowden, Coke, Mansfield and modern reporters. Chapter one from page 5-9 contains a discussion of recent Year Book scholarship with a few quotes and citations from the Year Books themselves.

T. F. T. Plucknett Early English Legal Literature, Cambridge, [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press, 1958.

Description: Collection of lectures on Maitland’s work, early English legal literature, Bracton and the Year Books. Chapter VI “Cases and Year Books” (p. 98-114) discusses the Year Books, their origins, predecessors and printings.

L. W. Abbott Law Reporting in England 1485-1585, London: The Athlone Press at the University of London, 1973.

Description: A history of case reporting starting with the last of the Year Books. Chapter one “The Last of the Yearbooks” (p. 9-36) deals with the Year Books of Henry VII and VIII. Pages xi-xii contains a list of all Year Book cases cited as well as cases cited from Fitzherbert’s and Brooke’s Abridgement.

J. H. Baker English Legal Manuscripts, Zug [Switzerland]: Inter Documentation Company AG, 1975.

Description: Volume I is a catalogue of the manuscript Year Book, moot readings and law reports at Harvard law library. Part I (p. 1-64) organizes these materials in numerical order according to shelf numbers. Page 77-78 is a chronological table of Year Books. Volume II is a catalogue of manuscript Year Books, moot readings and law reports in Lincoln’s Inn, Bodleian Library, and Gray’s Inn.

J. H. Baker Manual of Law French, Avebury: Avebury Publishing Co., 1979 2d ed. London: Scholar Press, 1990.

Description: The history and study of law French. Includes notes on the grammar, common abbreviations and contractions commonly found in law books. Page 29-37 is a bibliography of aids to interpretation. Page 43-205 is a glossary of the active vocabulary (fewer than 1000 words) of mid-Tudor times.

J. H. Baker Why the History of English Law Has Not Been Finished, Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Description: An inaugural lecture delivered in the Cambridge University Law School on October 14, 1998. The lecture assesses the achievements, or lack thereof, in the field of English legal history with emphasis on Maitland’s work. After discussing the Year Books and Plea Rolls, Baker asks the question “what is law for the purposes of legal history?” He answers that the “common law” was not simply cases decided, but rather a body of “received wisdom” of which the reports were only a part.


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Abstract

Scholarly treatment of American Communism began in the late 1950s and 1960s. The ‘traditionalists’ argued that the Communist Party, USA, was subordinate to the Soviet Union, possessed a totalitarian ideology, and had no legitimate place on the democratic left. In the 1970s and 1980s a wave of ‘revisionist’ scholars presented a benign view of American Communism as a progressive force, stressed locally-oriented social histories, placed the movement in the traditions of native American radicalism, and minimized the importance of Soviet ties. The opening of the Russian archives in the 1990s reinvigorated the traditionalist approach and inserted CPUSA cooperation with Soviet espionage into the debate. Today the field is unsettled and debate vigorous. Revisionists are on the defensive while traditionalists increasingly control the argument.

J. E. Haynes, Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings , New York, Garland, 1987. Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings

The Fund for the Republic was a private foundation headed by the former president of the University of Chicago, Robert Hutchins. The books in the series are: T. Draper, The Roots of American Communism , New York, Viking Press, 1957 R. W. Iversen, The Communists and the Schools, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 D. A. Shannon, The Decline of American Communism. A History of the Communist Party of the United States Since 1945, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 T. Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia, New York, Viking Press, 1960 C. L. Rossiter, Marxism. The View from America, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 R. L. Roy, Communism and the Churches, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 N. Glazer, The Social Basis of American Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 F. S. Meyer, The Moulding of Communists. The Training of the Communist Cadre, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 D. Aaron, Writers on the Left. Episodes in American Literary Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961 E. Latham, The Communist Controversy in Washington. From the New Deal to McCarthy, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966. The Roots of American Communism

I. Howe and L. A. Coser, The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957 , Boston, Beacon Press, 1957. Also sharing the approach of the ‘Communism in American Life’ series was M. M. Kampelman, The Communist Party Vs. the CIO. A Study in Power Politics, New York, F. A. Praeger 1957. The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957

M. Isserman, ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’, Labor History , 26, 4, 1985, pp. 539-40 M. Isserman, Which Side Were You On? The American Communist Party During the Second World War, Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1982. ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’ Labor History 26 539 40

Again, most of the revisionist studies of Communists in the labour movement tend to avoid a broad perspective. One of the exceptions is H. A. Levenstein, Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO , Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1981, the revisionist response to Kampelman, Communist Party Vs. the CIO and B. Cochran, Labor and Communism. The Conflict That Shaped American Unions, Princeton University Press, 1977. Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO

H. Klehr and J. E. Haynes, The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself , New York, Twayne, 1992, pp. 4, 179. The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself 4

T. Draper, ‘Life of the party’, New York Review of Books , 13 January 1994. ‘Life of the party’ New York Review of Books

M. Denning, The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century , London and New York, Verso, 1997. The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century

P. Rachleff, ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 330-4 M. Denning, ‘The future of the cultural front’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 334-7. Waiting for Lefty was a Clifford Odets play of the era where the action takes place while the players and the audience await the return of a strike leader, ‘Lefty.’ ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’ Labor History 39 330 4

J. R. Starobin, American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957 , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1972. American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957

H. Klehr, The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade , New York, Basic Books, 1984. Other traditionalist studies from the 1970s and 1980s include: H. Klehr, Communist Cadre. The Social Background of the American Communist Party Elite, Stanford, Ca., Hoover Institution Press, 1978 L. K. Dyson, Red Harvest. The Communist Party and American Farmers, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1982 A. S. Kraditor, ‘Jimmy Higgins’. The Mental World of the American Rank-and-File Communist, 1930-1958, New York, Greenwood Press, 1988 J. E. Haynes, Dubious Alliance. The Making of Minnesota's DFL Party, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1984. The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade

T. Draper, ‘American communism revisited’, New York Review of Books , 9 May 1985 T. Draper, ‘The popular front revisited’, New York Review of Books , 30 May 1985. For another critique of revisionism from a left-wing, anti-Stalinist viewpoint, see J. Jacobson, ‘The Soviet Union is dead, the "Russian question" remains: Part 1: The Communist Party — myth and reality’, New Politics, 5, 2 (n.s.) 1995, http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm. http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm ‘American communism revisited’ New York Review of Books

M. E. Brown, ‘Introduction: the history of the history of U.S. communism’, in M. E. Brown, R. Martin, F. Rosengarten and G. Snedeker (eds), New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism , New York, Monthly Review Press, 1993, pp. 21, 28, 31. Other authors in this volume included Rosalyn Baxandall, John Gerassi, Marvin Gettleman, Gerald Horne, Roger Keeran, Mark Naison, Stephen Leberstein, Ellen Schrecker, Annette Rubinstein, Alan Wald and Anders Stephanson. Keeran is best known for a major revisionist work on trade union history, R. Keeran, The Communist Party and the Auto Workers’ Unions, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1980. Wald, who has a Trotskyist orientation, later disassociated himself from what he termed Brown's ‘oddball opinions’ and suggested that few revisionists shared Brown's views. See A. M. Wald, ‘Search for a method: recent histories of American communism’, Radical History Review, 61, 1995, p. 173, n. 10. New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism 21

Isserman's own Which Side Are You On? is one of the few party-centred studies, and it focuses on the six-year period from late 1939 to 1946 with only brief summaries for the pre- and post-war periods.

The two traditionalist, one-volume studies are: Howe and Coser, The American Communist Party and Klehr and Haynes, The American Communist Movement.

F. M. Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II , New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1991, pp. 4, 213. The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II 4

New York Times, 24 August 1939 Daily Worker, 23 August 1939.

Browder report to CPUSA national committee, quoted in Daily Worker, 5 September 1939.

Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States, p. 194.

N. Markowitz, ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’, Political Affairs , 62, 1983, pp. 27-38 N. D. Markowitz, The Rise and Fall of the People's Century. Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941-1948, New York, Free Press, 1973. ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’ Political Affairs 62 27 38

M. Naison, Communists in Harlem During the Depression , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1983. Communists in Harlem During the Depression

G. Horne, ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’, Political Affairs , 63, 1984, pp. 36-8. Home's major works include: G. Horne, Black and Red. W. E. B. Du Bois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944-1963, Albany, N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1986 G. Horne, Communist Front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1946-1956, Rutherford, N.J. and London, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press and Associated University Presses, 1988 and G. Horne, Black Liberation/Red Scare. Ben Davis and the Communist Party, Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press, 1993. ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’ Political Affairs 63 36 8

P. Lyons, Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 , Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1982, pp. 18, 238. Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 18

E. Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America , Boston, Little, Brown, 1998, p. xviii. Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America xviii

N. Markowitz [email protected], ‘FDR and socialism,’ 14 November 2001, in H-1918-45, archived at www2.h-net.msu.edu/lists/

A. Wald, ‘Communist writers fight back in Cold War America’, in P. Goldstein (ed.), Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism , Cranbury, NJ, University of Delaware Press and Associated University Presses, 1994. Wald's works include A. M. Wald, Writing from the Left. New Essays on Radical Culture and Politics, London and New York, Verso, 1994 A. M. Wald, The New York Intellectuals. The Rise and Decline of the Anti-Stalinist Left from the 1930s to the 1980s, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1987 A. M. Wald, Exiles from a Future Time. The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth-Century Literary Left, Chapel Hill. University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism

R. D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression , Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1990 R. D. G. Kelley, Race Rebels. Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class, New York and Toronto, Free Press and Maxwell Macmillan, 1994. Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression

R. Neumann, ‘The empire strikes back’, Village Voice, 3-9 October 2001 http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0140/neumann.php

H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and F. I. Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism , New Haven, Yale University Press, 1995 H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and K. M. Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998 J. E. Haynes and H. Klehr, Venona. Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999 J. E. Haynes, Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era, Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 1996. The Secret World of American Communism

A. Weinstein and A. Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era , New York, Random House, 1999. The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era

M. Isserman, ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review , 9 May 1999. ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review

J. Ryan, ‘Earl Browder and American communism at high time: 1934-1945’, PhD thesis, University of Notre Dame, 1981 J. G. Ryan, Earl Browder. The Failure of American Communism, Tuscaloosa, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1997, p. xi.

V. Pedersen, ‘Riding the wave: the Indiana Communist Party, 1929-1934’, MA thesis, Indiana State University, 1987 V. L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57, Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2001, p. 3.

M. Isserman, ‘Notes from underground’, Nation , 12 June 1995. ‘Notes from underground’ Nation

E. Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism and historical revisionism’, conference presentation, American Historical Association, Boston, 2001. Radosh, a former young Communist and New Leftist activist, particularly irritates revisionists. His major works include: R. Radosh and J. Milton, The Rosenberg File. A Search for the Truth, New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983 H. Klehr and R. Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case. Prelude to McCarthyism, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1996 R. Radosh, M. R. Habeck, and G. N. Sevostianov, Spain Betrayed. The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2001.

E. P. Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster , Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 6-7. Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster 6 7

Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism, pp. 284, 307.

J. R. Barrett, William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1999, pp. 4-5. William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism 4 5

M. Solomon, ‘Red and black: negroes and communism, 1929-1932’, PhD thesis, Harvard University, 1972, published as M. I. Solomon, Red and Black. Communism and Afro-Americans, 1929-1935, New York, Garland, 1988. The quotation is from the latter's preface.

M. I. Solomon, The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 , Jackson, University Press of Mississippi, 1998, pp. xxiii-xxiv. The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 xxiii xxiv

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, p. x. Her other works include: E. Schrecker, No Ivory Tower. McCarthyism and the Universities, Oxford University Press, 1986, and E. Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism. A Brief History with Documents, Boston, Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism’ E. Schrecker and M. Isserman, ‘The Right's Cold War revision: current espionage fears have given new life to liberal anticommunism’, Nation, 24 July 2000.

D. Caute, The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower , New York, Simon and Schuster, 1977, p. 54. The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower 54

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 5-6, 10, 18, 22, 36, 166.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 178-9, 181.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. xviii, 46, 178-9.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. x, xii, 75-6. Many Are the Crimes x

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. 375-6, 381, 399, 402. Many Are the Crimes 375 6

J. E. Haynes, Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings , New York, Garland, 1987. Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings

The Fund for the Republic was a private foundation headed by the former president of the University of Chicago, Robert Hutchins. The books in the series are: T. Draper, The Roots of American Communism , New York, Viking Press, 1957 R. W. Iversen, The Communists and the Schools, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 D. A. Shannon, The Decline of American Communism. A History of the Communist Party of the United States Since 1945, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 T. Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia, New York, Viking Press, 1960 C. L. Rossiter, Marxism. The View from America, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 R. L. Roy, Communism and the Churches, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 N. Glazer, The Social Basis of American Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 F. S. Meyer, The Moulding of Communists. The Training of the Communist Cadre, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 D. Aaron, Writers on the Left. Episodes in American Literary Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961 E. Latham, The Communist Controversy in Washington. From the New Deal to McCarthy, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966. The Roots of American Communism

I. Howe and L. A. Coser, The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957 , Boston, Beacon Press, 1957. Also sharing the approach of the ‘Communism in American Life’ series was M. M. Kampelman, The Communist Party Vs. the CIO. A Study in Power Politics, New York, F. A. Praeger 1957. The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957

M. Isserman, ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’, Labor History , 26, 4, 1985, pp. 539-40 M. Isserman, Which Side Were You On? The American Communist Party During the Second World War, Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1982. ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’ Labor History 26 539 40

Again, most of the revisionist studies of Communists in the labour movement tend to avoid a broad perspective. One of the exceptions is H. A. Levenstein, Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO , Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1981, the revisionist response to Kampelman, Communist Party Vs. the CIO and B. Cochran, Labor and Communism. The Conflict That Shaped American Unions, Princeton University Press, 1977. Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO

H. Klehr and J. E. Haynes, The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself , New York, Twayne, 1992, pp. 4, 179. The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself 4

T. Draper, ‘Life of the party’, New York Review of Books , 13 January 1994. ‘Life of the party’ New York Review of Books

M. Denning, The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century , London and New York, Verso, 1997. The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century

P. Rachleff, ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 330-4 M. Denning, ‘The future of the cultural front’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 334-7. Waiting for Lefty was a Clifford Odets play of the era where the action takes place while the players and the audience await the return of a strike leader, ‘Lefty.’ ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’ Labor History 39 330 4

J. R. Starobin, American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957 , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1972. American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957

H. Klehr, The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade , New York, Basic Books, 1984. Other traditionalist studies from the 1970s and 1980s include: H. Klehr, Communist Cadre. The Social Background of the American Communist Party Elite, Stanford, Ca., Hoover Institution Press, 1978 L. K. Dyson, Red Harvest. The Communist Party and American Farmers, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1982 A. S. Kraditor, ‘Jimmy Higgins’. The Mental World of the American Rank-and-File Communist, 1930-1958, New York, Greenwood Press, 1988 J. E. Haynes, Dubious Alliance. The Making of Minnesota's DFL Party, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1984. The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade

T. Draper, ‘American communism revisited’, New York Review of Books , 9 May 1985 T. Draper, ‘The popular front revisited’, New York Review of Books , 30 May 1985. For another critique of revisionism from a left-wing, anti-Stalinist viewpoint, see J. Jacobson, ‘The Soviet Union is dead, the "Russian question" remains: Part 1: The Communist Party — myth and reality’, New Politics, 5, 2 (n.s.) 1995, http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm. http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm ‘American communism revisited’ New York Review of Books

M. E. Brown, ‘Introduction: the history of the history of U.S. communism’, in M. E. Brown, R. Martin, F. Rosengarten and G. Snedeker (eds), New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism , New York, Monthly Review Press, 1993, pp. 21, 28, 31. Other authors in this volume included Rosalyn Baxandall, John Gerassi, Marvin Gettleman, Gerald Horne, Roger Keeran, Mark Naison, Stephen Leberstein, Ellen Schrecker, Annette Rubinstein, Alan Wald and Anders Stephanson. Keeran is best known for a major revisionist work on trade union history, R. Keeran, The Communist Party and the Auto Workers’ Unions, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1980. Wald, who has a Trotskyist orientation, later disassociated himself from what he termed Brown's ‘oddball opinions’ and suggested that few revisionists shared Brown's views. See A. M. Wald, ‘Search for a method: recent histories of American communism’, Radical History Review, 61, 1995, p. 173, n. 10. New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism 21

Isserman's own Which Side Are You On? is one of the few party-centred studies, and it focuses on the six-year period from late 1939 to 1946 with only brief summaries for the pre- and post-war periods.

The two traditionalist, one-volume studies are: Howe and Coser, The American Communist Party and Klehr and Haynes, The American Communist Movement.

F. M. Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II , New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1991, pp. 4, 213. The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II 4

New York Times, 24 August 1939 Daily Worker, 23 August 1939.

Browder report to CPUSA national committee, quoted in Daily Worker, 5 September 1939.

Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States, p. 194.

N. Markowitz, ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’, Political Affairs , 62, 1983, pp. 27-38 N. D. Markowitz, The Rise and Fall of the People's Century. Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941-1948, New York, Free Press, 1973. ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’ Political Affairs 62 27 38

M. Naison, Communists in Harlem During the Depression , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1983. Communists in Harlem During the Depression

G. Horne, ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’, Political Affairs , 63, 1984, pp. 36-8. Home's major works include: G. Horne, Black and Red. W. E. B. Du Bois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944-1963, Albany, N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1986 G. Horne, Communist Front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1946-1956, Rutherford, N.J. and London, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press and Associated University Presses, 1988 and G. Horne, Black Liberation/Red Scare. Ben Davis and the Communist Party, Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press, 1993. ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’ Political Affairs 63 36 8

P. Lyons, Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 , Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1982, pp. 18, 238. Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 18

E. Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America , Boston, Little, Brown, 1998, p. xviii. Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America xviii

N. Markowitz [email protected], ‘FDR and socialism,’ 14 November 2001, in H-1918-45, archived at www2.h-net.msu.edu/lists/

A. Wald, ‘Communist writers fight back in Cold War America’, in P. Goldstein (ed.), Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism , Cranbury, NJ, University of Delaware Press and Associated University Presses, 1994. Wald's works include A. M. Wald, Writing from the Left. New Essays on Radical Culture and Politics, London and New York, Verso, 1994 A. M. Wald, The New York Intellectuals. The Rise and Decline of the Anti-Stalinist Left from the 1930s to the 1980s, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1987 A. M. Wald, Exiles from a Future Time. The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth-Century Literary Left, Chapel Hill. University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism

R. D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression , Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1990 R. D. G. Kelley, Race Rebels. Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class, New York and Toronto, Free Press and Maxwell Macmillan, 1994. Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression

R. Neumann, ‘The empire strikes back’, Village Voice, 3-9 October 2001 http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0140/neumann.php

H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and F. I. Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism , New Haven, Yale University Press, 1995 H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and K. M. Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998 J. E. Haynes and H. Klehr, Venona. Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999 J. E. Haynes, Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era, Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 1996. The Secret World of American Communism

A. Weinstein and A. Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era , New York, Random House, 1999. The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era

M. Isserman, ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review , 9 May 1999. ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review

J. Ryan, ‘Earl Browder and American communism at high time: 1934-1945’, PhD thesis, University of Notre Dame, 1981 J. G. Ryan, Earl Browder. The Failure of American Communism, Tuscaloosa, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1997, p. xi.

V. Pedersen, ‘Riding the wave: the Indiana Communist Party, 1929-1934’, MA thesis, Indiana State University, 1987 V. L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57, Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2001, p. 3.

M. Isserman, ‘Notes from underground’, Nation , 12 June 1995. ‘Notes from underground’ Nation

E. Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism and historical revisionism’, conference presentation, American Historical Association, Boston, 2001. Radosh, a former young Communist and New Leftist activist, particularly irritates revisionists. His major works include: R. Radosh and J. Milton, The Rosenberg File. A Search for the Truth, New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983 H. Klehr and R. Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case. Prelude to McCarthyism, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1996 R. Radosh, M. R. Habeck, and G. N. Sevostianov, Spain Betrayed. The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2001.

E. P. Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster , Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 6-7. Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster 6 7

Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism, pp. 284, 307.

J. R. Barrett, William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1999, pp. 4-5. William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism 4 5

M. Solomon, ‘Red and black: negroes and communism, 1929-1932’, PhD thesis, Harvard University, 1972, published as M. I. Solomon, Red and Black. Communism and Afro-Americans, 1929-1935, New York, Garland, 1988. The quotation is from the latter's preface.

M. I. Solomon, The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 , Jackson, University Press of Mississippi, 1998, pp. xxiii-xxiv. The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 xxiii xxiv

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, p. x. Her other works include: E. Schrecker, No Ivory Tower. McCarthyism and the Universities, Oxford University Press, 1986, and E. Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism. A Brief History with Documents, Boston, Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism’ E. Schrecker and M. Isserman, ‘The Right's Cold War revision: current espionage fears have given new life to liberal anticommunism’, Nation, 24 July 2000.

D. Caute, The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower , New York, Simon and Schuster, 1977, p. 54. The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower 54

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 5-6, 10, 18, 22, 36, 166.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 178-9, 181.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. xviii, 46, 178-9.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. x, xii, 75-6. Many Are the Crimes x

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. 375-6, 381, 399, 402. Many Are the Crimes 375 6

J. E. Haynes, Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings , New York, Garland, 1987. Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States. An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings

The Fund for the Republic was a private foundation headed by the former president of the University of Chicago, Robert Hutchins. The books in the series are: T. Draper, The Roots of American Communism , New York, Viking Press, 1957 R. W. Iversen, The Communists and the Schools, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 D. A. Shannon, The Decline of American Communism. A History of the Communist Party of the United States Since 1945, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1959 T. Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia, New York, Viking Press, 1960 C. L. Rossiter, Marxism. The View from America, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 R. L. Roy, Communism and the Churches, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1960 N. Glazer, The Social Basis of American Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 F. S. Meyer, The Moulding of Communists. The Training of the Communist Cadre, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1961 D. Aaron, Writers on the Left. Episodes in American Literary Communism, New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961 E. Latham, The Communist Controversy in Washington. From the New Deal to McCarthy, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966. The Roots of American Communism

I. Howe and L. A. Coser, The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957 , Boston, Beacon Press, 1957. Also sharing the approach of the ‘Communism in American Life’ series was M. M. Kampelman, The Communist Party Vs. the CIO. A Study in Power Politics, New York, F. A. Praeger 1957. The American Communist Party. A Critical History, 1919-1957

M. Isserman, ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’, Labor History , 26, 4, 1985, pp. 539-40 M. Isserman, Which Side Were You On? The American Communist Party During the Second World War, Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1982. ‘Three generations: historians view American communism’ Labor History 26 539 40

Again, most of the revisionist studies of Communists in the labour movement tend to avoid a broad perspective. One of the exceptions is H. A. Levenstein, Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO , Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1981, the revisionist response to Kampelman, Communist Party Vs. the CIO and B. Cochran, Labor and Communism. The Conflict That Shaped American Unions, Princeton University Press, 1977. Communism, Anti-Communism, and the CIO

H. Klehr and J. E. Haynes, The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself , New York, Twayne, 1992, pp. 4, 179. The American Communist Movement. Storming Heaven Itself 4

T. Draper, ‘Life of the party’, New York Review of Books , 13 January 1994. ‘Life of the party’ New York Review of Books

M. Denning, The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century , London and New York, Verso, 1997. The Cultural Front. The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century

P. Rachleff, ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 330-4 M. Denning, ‘The future of the cultural front’, Labor History , 39, 3, 1998, pp. 334-7. Waiting for Lefty was a Clifford Odets play of the era where the action takes place while the players and the audience await the return of a strike leader, ‘Lefty.’ ‘Understanding legacies, understanding possibilities’ Labor History 39 330 4

J. R. Starobin, American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957 , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1972. American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957

H. Klehr, The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade , New York, Basic Books, 1984. Other traditionalist studies from the 1970s and 1980s include: H. Klehr, Communist Cadre. The Social Background of the American Communist Party Elite, Stanford, Ca., Hoover Institution Press, 1978 L. K. Dyson, Red Harvest. The Communist Party and American Farmers, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1982 A. S. Kraditor, ‘Jimmy Higgins’. The Mental World of the American Rank-and-File Communist, 1930-1958, New York, Greenwood Press, 1988 J. E. Haynes, Dubious Alliance. The Making of Minnesota's DFL Party, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1984. The Heyday of American Communism. The Depression Decade

T. Draper, ‘American communism revisited’, New York Review of Books , 9 May 1985 T. Draper, ‘The popular front revisited’, New York Review of Books , 30 May 1985. For another critique of revisionism from a left-wing, anti-Stalinist viewpoint, see J. Jacobson, ‘The Soviet Union is dead, the "Russian question" remains: Part 1: The Communist Party — myth and reality’, New Politics, 5, 2 (n.s.) 1995, http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm. http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue18/jacobs18.htm ‘American communism revisited’ New York Review of Books

M. E. Brown, ‘Introduction: the history of the history of U.S. communism’, in M. E. Brown, R. Martin, F. Rosengarten and G. Snedeker (eds), New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism , New York, Monthly Review Press, 1993, pp. 21, 28, 31. Other authors in this volume included Rosalyn Baxandall, John Gerassi, Marvin Gettleman, Gerald Horne, Roger Keeran, Mark Naison, Stephen Leberstein, Ellen Schrecker, Annette Rubinstein, Alan Wald and Anders Stephanson. Keeran is best known for a major revisionist work on trade union history, R. Keeran, The Communist Party and the Auto Workers’ Unions, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1980. Wald, who has a Trotskyist orientation, later disassociated himself from what he termed Brown's ‘oddball opinions’ and suggested that few revisionists shared Brown's views. See A. M. Wald, ‘Search for a method: recent histories of American communism’, Radical History Review, 61, 1995, p. 173, n. 10. New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism 21

Isserman's own Which Side Are You On? is one of the few party-centred studies, and it focuses on the six-year period from late 1939 to 1946 with only brief summaries for the pre- and post-war periods.

The two traditionalist, one-volume studies are: Howe and Coser, The American Communist Party and Klehr and Haynes, The American Communist Movement.

F. M. Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II , New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1991, pp. 4, 213. The Communist Party of the United States. From the Depression to World War II 4

New York Times, 24 August 1939 Daily Worker, 23 August 1939.

Browder report to CPUSA national committee, quoted in Daily Worker, 5 September 1939.

Ottanelli, The Communist Party of the United States, p. 194.

N. Markowitz, ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’, Political Affairs , 62, 1983, pp. 27-38 N. D. Markowitz, The Rise and Fall of the People's Century. Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941-1948, New York, Free Press, 1973. ‘The new Cold-War "scholarship"’ Political Affairs 62 27 38

M. Naison, Communists in Harlem During the Depression , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1983. Communists in Harlem During the Depression

G. Horne, ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’, Political Affairs , 63, 1984, pp. 36-8. Home's major works include: G. Horne, Black and Red. W. E. B. Du Bois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944-1963, Albany, N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1986 G. Horne, Communist Front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1946-1956, Rutherford, N.J. and London, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press and Associated University Presses, 1988 and G. Horne, Black Liberation/Red Scare. Ben Davis and the Communist Party, Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press, 1993. ‘Communists in Harlem during the Depression’ Political Affairs 63 36 8

P. Lyons, Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 , Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1982, pp. 18, 238. Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956 18

E. Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America , Boston, Little, Brown, 1998, p. xviii. Many Are the Crimes. McCarthyism in America xviii

N. Markowitz [email protected], ‘FDR and socialism,’ 14 November 2001, in H-1918-45, archived at www2.h-net.msu.edu/lists/

A. Wald, ‘Communist writers fight back in Cold War America’, in P. Goldstein (ed.), Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism , Cranbury, NJ, University of Delaware Press and Associated University Presses, 1994. Wald's works include A. M. Wald, Writing from the Left. New Essays on Radical Culture and Politics, London and New York, Verso, 1994 A. M. Wald, The New York Intellectuals. The Rise and Decline of the Anti-Stalinist Left from the 1930s to the 1980s, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1987 A. M. Wald, Exiles from a Future Time. The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth-Century Literary Left, Chapel Hill. University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Styles of Cultural Activism. From Theory and Pedagogy to Women, Indians, and Communism

R. D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression , Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1990 R. D. G. Kelley, Race Rebels. Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class, New York and Toronto, Free Press and Maxwell Macmillan, 1994. Hammer and Hoe. Alabama Communists During the Great Depression

R. Neumann, ‘The empire strikes back’, Village Voice, 3-9 October 2001 http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0140/neumann.php

H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and F. I. Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism , New Haven, Yale University Press, 1995 H. Klehr, J. E. Haynes and K. M. Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998 J. E. Haynes and H. Klehr, Venona. Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999 J. E. Haynes, Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era, Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 1996. The Secret World of American Communism

A. Weinstein and A. Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era , New York, Random House, 1999. The Haunted Wood. Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era

M. Isserman, ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review , 9 May 1999. ‘They led two lives,’ New York Times Book Review

J. Ryan, ‘Earl Browder and American communism at high time: 1934-1945’, PhD thesis, University of Notre Dame, 1981 J. G. Ryan, Earl Browder. The Failure of American Communism, Tuscaloosa, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1997, p. xi.

V. Pedersen, ‘Riding the wave: the Indiana Communist Party, 1929-1934’, MA thesis, Indiana State University, 1987 V. L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57, Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2001, p. 3.

M. Isserman, ‘Notes from underground’, Nation , 12 June 1995. ‘Notes from underground’ Nation

E. Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism and historical revisionism’, conference presentation, American Historical Association, Boston, 2001. Radosh, a former young Communist and New Leftist activist, particularly irritates revisionists. His major works include: R. Radosh and J. Milton, The Rosenberg File. A Search for the Truth, New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983 H. Klehr and R. Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case. Prelude to McCarthyism, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1996 R. Radosh, M. R. Habeck, and G. N. Sevostianov, Spain Betrayed. The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2001.

E. P. Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster , Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 6-7. Forging American Communism. The Life of William Z. Foster 6 7

Johanningsmeier, Forging American Communism, pp. 284, 307.

J. R. Barrett, William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism , Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1999, pp. 4-5. William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism 4 5

M. Solomon, ‘Red and black: negroes and communism, 1929-1932’, PhD thesis, Harvard University, 1972, published as M. I. Solomon, Red and Black. Communism and Afro-Americans, 1929-1935, New York, Garland, 1988. The quotation is from the latter's preface.

M. I. Solomon, The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 , Jackson, University Press of Mississippi, 1998, pp. xxiii-xxiv. The Cry Was Unity. Communists and African Americans, 1917-36 xxiii xxiv

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, p. x. Her other works include: E. Schrecker, No Ivory Tower. McCarthyism and the Universities, Oxford University Press, 1986, and E. Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism. A Brief History with Documents, Boston, Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Schrecker, ‘Post-Cold War triumphalism’ E. Schrecker and M. Isserman, ‘The Right's Cold War revision: current espionage fears have given new life to liberal anticommunism’, Nation, 24 July 2000.

D. Caute, The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower , New York, Simon and Schuster, 1977, p. 54. The Great Fear. The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower 54

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 5-6, 10, 18, 22, 36, 166.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. 178-9, 181.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes, pp. xviii, 46, 178-9.

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. x, xii, 75-6. Many Are the Crimes x

Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes , pp. 375-6, 381, 399, 402. Many Are the Crimes 375 6


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To provide a critically engaged, honest, and unbiased recommendation on the suitability of the manuscript for publication in the journal. Reviewers are encouraged to provide feedback to contributing authors in the spirit of supporting and encouraging improvements to their academic skills.


Editorial Policy and Submission Guidelines

The editors of the North Carolina Historical Review and the Advisory Editorial Committee seek to publish articles and annotated documents pertaining to the history of North Carolina. The editors and the committee consider originality of material and interpretation, sources, clarity of thought, style, and interests of readers. Materials primarily genealogical are not accepted.

Manuscripts should generally not exceed thirty-five double-spaced typed pages, including text and notes. Occasionally, longer manuscripts are accepted. Text and notes must be double-spaced, and the latter should appear on separate sheets at the end of the essay. The author’s name should appear only on the title page of the manuscript. The journal follows The Chicago Manual of Style, seventeenth edition, in matters of capitalization, punctuation, abbreviation, citation, and the like. The style guide is available for download (in PDF format) below.


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