Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born

Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born


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On January 13, 1807, Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born in Woodford, Kentucky. Buford held many commands in the West and was a hero at the Battle of Belmont, Missouri, early in the war.

Buford attended West Point and graduated in 1827. After a stint with the frontier military, he was given leave to study law at Harvard. He taught at West Point before leaving the service to become a businessman. He was an engineer and banker in Illinois during the 1840s and 1850s.

When the Civil War began, the 54-year-old Buford raised his own regiment, the 27th Illinois. He was commissioned as a colonel, and his unit was sent to Cairo, Illinois, and placed in General Ulysses S. Grant’s army. On November 7, 1861, Grant attacked a Confederate camp at Belmont, Missouri, and quickly drove the Rebels away. However, Grant’s men became preoccupied with plundering the area, and a Confederate counterattack nearly turned to disaster for the Yankees. Buford’s regiment was almost cut off from the main Union force. He rallied his men and they fought their way out of the Confederate trap. Buford was commended for his bravery.

After Belmont, Buford participated in the capture of Island No. 10, a Confederate stronghold in the Mississippi River. He was left in command of the island after its capture. Buford and his regiment fought at Corinth, Mississippi, in October 1862, but the colonel fell seriously ill from sunstroke and left field command.

Buford eventually returned to the West and was promoted to brigadier general in charge of the district of Eastern Arkansas. He remained there for the rest of the war, although his main military action came in chasing off Confederate raiders in the area. Buford generated controversy in his dealings with black troops. He had drawn earlier criticism for not helping refugee enslaved people, and now he proclaimed his preference for commanding white troops.He silenced some of the criticism by implementing programs for formerly enslaved people in Arkansas that generally succeeded in taking care of their immediate needs. Poor health forced Buford’s resignation in March 1865, just before the end of the war. He was brevetted to major general following his retirement. He worked in a variety of businesses after the war and died in Chicago in 1883.

Napoleon Bonaparte Buford was the older half-brother of John Buford, a Union General who commanded theYankee force that first engaged the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in 1863.


Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born - HISTORY

Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
(1807-1883)

In spite of a truly military name, the half-brother of Gettysburg hero John Buford held the rank of major general for only a few months. Napoleon Bonaparte Buford was born into Kentucky's plantation society the West Pointer (1827) served eight years in the artillery and as a professor at his alma mater. Following his 1835 resignation he settled in Illinois and engaged in banking, engineering, railroading, and iron.
Financially ruined by the default of Southern bonds held by his bank, he entered the Union army where his assignments included: colonel, 27th Illinois (August 10, 1861) commanding Flotilla Brigade, Army of the Mississippi (April 24-26, 1862) commanding lst Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Mississippi (April 26-June 25 and September 20-November 1, 1862) major general, USV (November 29, 1862) commanding District of Eastern Arkansas, 16th Corps, Army of the Tennessee (September 19, 1863-January 6, 1864) and commanding District of Eastern Arkansas, 7th Corps, Department of Arkansas (January 6 - August 6, September 28 - October 7, 1864, and October 10, 1864-March 9, 1865).
He fought under Grant at Belmont, under Pope at Island # 10, and under Rosecrans at Corinth. In each of the latter two he directed a brigade. He served in the very early stages of the Vicksburg Campaign but his appointment as a major general was not confirmed by the Senate and it expired on March 4, 1863. During the later part of the war he commanded in eastern Arkansas, with headquarters at Helena. On leave at the end of the war, he was brevetted major general and was mustered out on August 24, 1865 he was later a government appointee.


--> Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte, 1807-1883

Buford was the son of John and Nancy Hickman Buford. He was born in Woodford County, Kentucky on his family's plantation, "Rose Hill." At the time of his birth his namesake, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, was at the height of his power. Buford graduated from West Point in 1827 and served for eight years in the artillery and in 1835 resigned from the service to become an engineer. He thereafter engaged in iron manufacturing and banking at Rock Island, Illinois and became president of the Rock Island and Peoria Railroad, which went bankrupt when major Southern bonds were defaulted with the start of the Civil War.

In the U.S. Civil War, he first served as colonel of the 27th Illinois Infantry, fighting at the Battle of Belmont. He then commanded the so-called "Flotilla Brigade" of the Army of the Mississippi during the Battle of Island Number Ten. This was a brigade of infantry which served on board the gunboats of the Western Flotilla.

On April 16, 1862 President Abraham Lincoln appointed Buford Brigadier General of U.S. Volunteers, to rank from April 15, 1862. Buford commanded the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Mississippi during the siege and Battle of Corinth. In the final days of 1862, he served on the court-martial that convicted Major General Fitz John Porter of cowardice and disobedience. On November 29, 1862 he was appointed Major General of U.S. Volunteers but this appointment expired on March 4, 1863 and he reverted to brigadier general on that date. For the rest of the war, Buford served as commander of the District of East Arkansas. Buford was mustered out of the army on August 24, 1865. On July 5, 1867, President Andrew Johnson nominated Buford for appointment to the brevet grade of major general of volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment on July 19, 1867.

Buford's younger half brother, John Buford, was also a West Point graduate (Class of 1848) and a general in the Union Army during the Civil War, commanding the 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. A cousin, Abraham Buford, was a general in the Confederate States Army.

Buford was government inspector of the Union Pacific Railroad from 1867 to 1869 and a special commissioner of Indian affairs in 1867–68.


Major General John Buford, USA

During the early years of the Civil War, the Union cavalry was often outclassed by Confederate troopers. Rebel cavalrymen became legendary for their exploits against federal horsemen, often riding circles around them and routing them on numerous occasions. Eventually, through the implementation of improved organization, training, weaponry, and leadership, Union troopers began to match the skill of their rebel adversaries. Among the Union horsemen that contributed to the improvement in Union cavalry was John Buford.

John Buford was born on 4 March 1826 near Versailles, Kentucky, into a family with a proud military heritage. His father was a militia officer, his paternal grandfather fought in the Revolutionary War with COL Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee, and his older half-brother, Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, graduated from West Point in 1827.

In 1844, he followed in his half-brother’s footsteps and earned an appointment to West Point, where he earned solid marks and graduated sixteenth in a class of thirty-eight in 1848. He was brevetted a second lieutenant in the Cavalry and was assigned to the 1st U.S. Dragoons at Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri.

Upon arriving at Jefferson Barracks, however, Buford was soon reassigned to Fort Scott, Missouri, where he became seriously ill, but recovered. After six months with the 1st Dragoons, Buford was promoted to full second lieutenant. Shortly after his promotion, he was reassigned to the 2d Dragoons, but quickly found himself back with the 1st Dragoons as the regimental quartermaster.

After an extended furlough in the summer of 1851 in Kentucky, where he began courting his future wife, Buford was posted with the 2d Dragoons at Fort Mason, Texas. While he saw some action against Indians, Buford spent much of his time once again as the regimental quartermaster, much to his frustration. In July 1853, he was promoted to first lieutenant and reassigned to Company H, 2d Dragoons, in the New Mexico Territory, but ended up back at Jefferson Barracks for more garrison duty.

In October 1855, Buford finally saw action in the field that he had longed for when he took part in the the Battle of Blue Water in Kansas against the Sioux Indians. Two years later, Buford and the 2d Dragoons formed part of the Utah Expedition, which was commanded by COL Albert Sidney Johnston and sent to the Utah Territory to put down a revolt by Mormon settlers. During the campaign, Buford once again served as regimental quartermaster and efficiently coordinated logistics for the expedition.

After his promotion to captain in March 1859, Buford was briefly assigned to Carlisle Barracks to train new cavalry recruits before being sent west to fight Indians in California. During the months leading up to the Civil War, he was offered command of Kentucky’s secessionist militia but refused to renounce his loyalty to the Union.

Once hostilities broke out between North and South, Buford and his regiment, redesignated the 2d Cavalry Regiment, marched overland from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to Washington, DC. In the first year of the war, he served as a staff officer in the defenses of Washington and remained in the capital during the Peninsula Campaign. Knowing that his talents were being wasted, MG John Pope, commander of the newly formed Army of Virginia, rescued Buford from his administrative job in July 1862, promoted him to brigadier general, and gave him command of a cavalry brigade. He fought in the Battle of Second Bull Run (29-30 August 1862) and was so badly wounded during the Union withdrawal that he was originally reported as dead. He also served in the Antietam and Fredericksburg Campaigns later in the year

Upon MG Joseph Hooker’s reorganization of the Army of the Potomac’s cavalry in early 1863, Buford was placed in command of the Cavalry Corps’ reserve brigade and participated in MG George Stoneman’s poorly conceived cavalry raid during the Battle of Chancellorsville. During the Confederate movement north after Chancellorsville, Buford commanded a cavalry division, fought at Brandy Station, and skirmished with the rebel cavalry screen at Aldie, Middleburg, and Upperville, while shadowing the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.

On 1 July 1863, two brigades of Buford’s division clashed with the leading elements of Confederate LTG A.P. Hill’s corps west of Gettysburg and initiated the most important battle of the war. Buford’s dismounted troopers held off the rebel advance and allowed Union reinforcements to arrive. The precious time bought by Buford allowed MG George G. Meade to establish strong defensive positions around Gettysburg and make a stand that ultimately resulted in a great Union victory.

Buford continued to serve in the Army of the Potomac after Gettysburg until he fell ill with typhoid fever in November 1863. As he lay dying in Washington, he was presented with a commission promoting him to major general of volunteers. He died on 16 December 1863 and is buried at West Point.


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About Maj. General John Buford, Jr. (USA)

John Buford, Jr. (March 4, 1826 – December 16, 1863) was a United States Army cavalry officer. He fought for the Union as a brigadier general during the American Civil War. Buford is best known for having played a major role in the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863 while in command of a division.

Buford graduated from West Point in 1848. Buford remained loyal to the United States at the beginning of the Civil War, despite having been born in the divided border state of Kentucky. He fought during the war against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia as part of the Army of the Potomac. His first command was a cavalry brigade under Major General John Pope, and he distinguished himself at Second Bull Run in August 1862, where he was wounded, and also saw action at Antietam in September and Stoneman's Raid in spring 1863.

Buford's cavalry division played a crucial role in the Gettysburg Campaign that summer. Arriving at the small town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on June 30 before the Confederate troops, Buford set up defensive positions. On the morning of July 1, Buford's division was attacked by a Confederate division under the command of Major General Henry Heth. His men held just long enough for Union reinforcements to arrive. After a massive three day battle, the Union troops emerged victorious. Later, Buford rendered valuable service to the Army, both in the pursuit of Robert E. Lee after the Battle of Gettysburg, and in the Bristoe Campaign that autumn, but his health started to fail, possibly from typhoid. Just before his death at age 37, he received a personal message from President Abraham Lincoln, promoting him to major general of volunteers in recognition of his tactical skill and leadership displayed on the first day of Gettysburg.

Early years

Buford was born in Woodford County, Kentucky, but was raised in Rock Island, Illinois, from the age of eight. His father was a prominent Democratic politician in Illinois and a political opponent of Abraham Lincoln. Buford was of English descent. His family had a long military tradition. John Jr.'s grandfather, Colonel Abraham Buford (of the Waxhaw Massacre), and great uncle served in Virginia regiments during the American Revolutionary War. His half-brother, Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, would become a major general in the Union Army. His cousin, Abraham Buford, would become a cavalry brigadier general in the Confederate States Army.

After attending Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois, for one year, Buford was accepted into the Class of 1848 at the United States Military Academy (West Point). Upperclassman during Buford's time at West Point included Fitz-John Porter (Class of 1845), George B. McClellan (1846), Thomas J. Jackson (1846), George Pickett (1846), and two future commanders and friends, George Stoneman (1846) and Ambrose Burnside (1847). The Class of 1847 also included A.P. Hill and Henry Heth, two men Buford would face at Gettysburg on the morning of July 1, 1863.

Buford graduated 16th of 38 cadets and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Dragoons, transferring the next year to the 2nd U.S. Dragoons. He served in Texas and against the Sioux, served on peacekeeping duty in Bleeding Kansas, and in the Utah War in 1858. He was stationed at Fort Crittenden, Utah, from 1859 to 1861. He studied the works of General John Watts de Peyster, who urged that the skirmish line become the new line of battle.

Throughout 1860, Buford and his fellow soldiers had lived with talk of secession and the possibility of civil war, and when the Pony Express brought word that Fort Sumter had been fired on in April 1861, that possibility became a reality. As was the case with many West Pointers, Buford had to choose between North and South. Based on his background, Buford had ample reason to join the Confederacy. He was a native Kentuckian, the son of a slave-owning father, and the husband of a woman whose relatives would fight for the South, as would a number of his own. On the other hand, Buford had been educated in the North and come to maturity within the Army. His two most influential professional role models, Colonels Harney and Cooke, were Southerners who elected to remain with the Union and the U.S. Army. He loved his profession and his time on the frontier had snapped a number of threads that drew other Southerners home.

John Gibbon, a North Carolinian facing the same dilemma, recalled in a post-war memoir the evening that John Buford committed himself to the Union:

One night after the arrival of the mail we were in his (Buford's) room, when Buford said in his slow and deliberate way "I got a letter from the Governor of Kentucky. He sent me word to come to Kentucky at once and I shall have anything I want." With a good deal of anxiety, I (Gibbon) asked "What did you answer, John?" And my relief was great when he replied "I sent him word I was a Captain in the United States Army and I intended to remain one!"

In November 1861, Buford was appointed assistant inspector general with the rank of major, and, in July 1862, after having served for several months in the defense of Washington, was raised to the rank of brigadier general of volunteers. In 1862, he was given his first position, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, as commander of the II Corp's Cavalry Brigade of the Union Army of Virginia, which fought with distinction at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Buford personally led a charge late in the battle, but was wounded in the knee by a spent bullet. The injury was painful but not serious, although some Union newspapers reported that he had been killed.[5] He returned to active service, and served as chief of cavalry to Maj. Gens. George B. McClellan and Ambrose E. Burnside in the Army of the Potomac. Unfortunately, this assignment was nothing more than a staff position and he chafed for a field command. In McClellan's Maryland Campaign, Buford was in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, replacing Brig. Gen. George Stoneman on McClellan's staff. Under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker in 1863, however, Buford was given the Reserve Brigade of regular cavalry in the 1st Division, Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

After the Battle of Chancellorsville, Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton was given command of the Cavalry Corps, although Hooker later agreed that Buford would have been the better choice. Buford first led his new division at the Battle of Brandy Station, which was virtually an all-cavalry engagement, and then again at the Battle of Upperville.

In the Gettysburg Campaign, Buford, who had been promoted to command of the 1st Division, is credited with selecting the field of battle at Gettysburg. On June 30, Buford's command rode into the small town of Gettysburg. Very soon, Buford realized that he was facing a superior force of rebels to his front and set about creating a defense against the Confederate advance. He was acutely aware of the importance of holding the tactically important high ground about Gettysburg and so he did, beginning one of the most iconic battles in American military history. His skillful defensive troop dispositions, coupled with the bravery and tenacity of his dismounted men, allowed the I Corps, under Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, time to come up in support and thus maintain a Union foothold at tactically important positions. Despite Lee’s barrage attack of 140 cannons and a final infantry attack on the third day of the battle, the Union army won a strategic victory. The importance of Buford's leadership and tactical foresight on July 1 cannot be overstated in its contribution to this victory. Afterward, Buford's troopers were sent by Pleasonton to Emmitsburg, Maryland, to resupply and refit, an ill-advised decision that uncovered the Union left flank.

In the Retreat from Gettysburg, Buford pursued the Confederates to Warrenton, Virginia, and was afterward engaged in many operations in central Virginia, rendering a particularly valuable service in covering Maj. Gen. George Meade's retrograde movement in the October 1863 Bristoe Campaign.

The hero at Oak Ridge was John Buford. he not only showed the rarest tenacity, but his personal capacity made his cavalry accomplish marvels, and rival infantry in their steadfastness. Glorious John Buford!

– Maj. Gen. John Watts de Peyster on Buford's Dragoon tactics

Buford despised the false flourish and noisy parade of the charlatans of his service. He avoided too, perhaps, the proper praise due his glorious actions, his bravery and dash, without ostentation or pride, his coolness and able management and above all, the care of his men endeared him to all.

– Theo. F. Rodenbough, Brevet Brigadier General

Death and legacy

By mid December, it was obvious that Buford was sick, possibly from contracting typhoid, and he took respite at the Washington home of his good friend, General George Stoneman. On December 16, Stoneman initiated the proposal that Buford be promoted to major general, and President Abraham Lincoln assented, writing as follows: "I am informed that General Buford will not survive the day. It suggests itself to me that he will be made Major General for distinguished and meritorious service at the Battle of Gettysburg." Informed of the promotion, Buford inquired doubtfully, "Does he mean it?" When assured the promotion was genuine, he replied simply, "It is too late, now I wish I could live."

In the last hours, Buford was attended by his aide, Captain Myles Keogh, and by Edward, his servant. Also present were Lt. Col. A. J. Alexander and General Stoneman. His wife Pattie was traveling from Rock Island, Illinois, but would not arrive in time. Near the end, he became delirious and began admonishing the servant, but then, in a moment of clarity, called for the man and apologized: "Edward, I hear that I have been scolding you. I did not know what I was doing. You have been a faithful servant, Edward."

John Buford died at 2 p.m., December 16, 1863, while Myles Keogh held him in his arms. His final reported words were "Put guards on all the roads, and don't let the men run to the rear."

On December 20, memorial services were held at a church on the corner of H. Street and New York Avenue in Washington, D.C. President Lincoln was among the mourners. Buford's wife, Pattie, was unable to attend due to illness. The pallbearers included Generals Casey, Heintzelman, Sickles, Schofield, Hancock, Doubleday, and Warren. General Stoneman commanded the escort in a procession that included "Grey Eagle," Buford's old white horse that he rode at Gettysburg.

No more to follow his daring form Or see him dash through the battle's storm No more with him to ride down the foe And behold his falchion's crushing blow Nor hear his voice, like a rushing blast As rider and steed went charging past . Buford is dead!

Philadelphia Inquirer, December 21, 1863After the service, two of Buford's staff, Captains Keogh and Wadsworth, escorted his body to West Point, where it was buried alongside fellow Gettysburg hero Lt. Alonzo Cushing, who had died defending the "high ground" (Cemetery Ridge) that Buford had chosen. In 1865, a 25-foot obelisk style monument was erected over his grave financed by members of his old division. The officers of his staff published a resolution that set forth the esteem in which he was held by those in his command:

. we, the staff officers of the late Major General John Buford, fully appreciating his merits as a gentleman, soldier, commander, and patriot, conceive his death to be an irreparable loss to the cavalry arm of the service. That we have been deprived of a friend and leader whose sole ambition was our success, and whose chief pleasure was in administering to the welfare, safety and happiness of the officers and men of his command.

. That to his unwearied exertions in the many responsible positions which he has occupied, the service at large is indebted for much of its efficiency, and in his death the cavalry has lost firm friend and most ardent advocate. That we are called to mourn the loss of one who was ever to us as the kindest and tenderest father, and that our fondest desire and wish will ever be to perpetuate his memory and emulate his greatness."

In 1866, a military fort established on the Missouri-Yellowstone confluence in what is now North Dakota, was named Fort Buford after the general. The town of Buford, Wyoming, was renamed in the general's honor.

In 1895, a bronze statue of Buford designed by artist James E. Kelly was dedicated on the Gettysburg Battlefield.

Buford was portrayed by Sam Elliott in the 1993 film Gettysburg, based on Michael Shaara's novel The Killer Angels.

Buford is a character in the alternate history novel Gettysburg, written by Newt Gingrich and William Forstchen.


Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born - HISTORY

Napoleon Bonaparte , son of John and Nancy Hickman Buford, married, first, Sara Childs, of Cassanovia, New York. They had one son, Temple, born in 1883. Napoleon Buford married, for second wife, Mrs. Mary Anne Pierce, born Greenwood.

Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, was a cadet at United States Military Academy, July 1, 1823 graduated in 1827 (sixth out of thirty-eighth) brevet second lieutenant, and second lieutenant, July 27, 1827 studied law at Harvard by permission of the War Department was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at the United States Military Academy, 1834-1835 resigned, 1835 resident engineer of the Licking River, Kentucky, Improving Company iron and in Peoria, Illinois, 1857 president of the Rock Island and Peoria Railroad colonel twenty-seventh Illinois infantry, August 10, 1861 Battle of Belmont, Kentucky, November 7, 1871 brigadier-general of volunteers, April 10, 1862 in command at Columbus, Kentucky, and Island No. 10, 1862 expedition to Fort Pillow, 1862 major-general of volunteers, November 29, 1862, to March 4, 1863 battle of Corinth, 1862 Vicksburg, 1863 command of Cairo, March to September, 1863 command Helena, Arkansas, September, 1863, to March, 1865 brevet major-general volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious conduct during the war mustered out of service August 24, 1865 government of Union Pacific Railroad, 1867-1869 commissioner of Indian affairs 1868.

General Buford died March 28, 1883.

Text quoted from: History and Genealogy of the Buford Family In America With Records of a Number of Allied Families


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    Thomas Leonidas Crittenden, American lawyer, politician, and Major General (Union Army), born in Russellville, Kentucky (d. 1893) Francis Preston Blair Jr, (Rep-Missouri), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1875) Joseph Jones Reynolds, American engineer, educator, and Major General (Union Army), born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky (d. 1899) John Pope, American Major General (Union Army), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1892) William Harrow, American lawyer and a controversial Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Winchester, Kentucky (d. 1872) James Isham Gilbert, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1884) Thomas John Wood, American Major General (Union Army), born in Munfordville, Kentucky (d. 1906) Joseph Alexander Cooper, American civil servant and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Whitley County, Kentucky (d. 1910) James Morrison Hawes, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1889) Richard James Oglesby, American politician and Major General (Union Army), born in Oldham County, Kentucky (d. 1899) William "Bull" Nelson, American Major General (Union Army), born in Maysville, Kentucky (d. 1862) James Winning McMillan, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Clark County, Kentucky (d. 1903) Edward Henry Hobson, American merchant, banker, politician, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Greensburg, Kentucky (d. 1901) John Buford, American Major General (Union Army), born in Woodford County, Kentucky (d. 1863) Green Clay Smith, American politician and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Richmond, Kentucky (d. 1895) Richard W Johnson, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Livingston County, Kentucky (d. 1897) James Murrell Shackelford, American lawyer, judge, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Lincoln County, Kentucky (d. 1909) Kenner Garrard, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Bourbon County, Kentucky (d. 1879) George Baird Hodge, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Fleming County, Kentucky (d. 1892) Richard Montgomery Gano, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Bourbon County, Kentucky (d. 1913) Joseph O. Shelby, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1897) Stephen Gano Burbridge, "Butcher of Kentucky", American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Georgetown, Kentucky (d. 1894) Randall L. Gibson, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Versailles, Kentucky (d. 1892) William Price Sanders, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Frankfort, Kentucky (d. 1863) John Thomas Croxton, American attorney, diplomat, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Paris, Kentucky, (d. 1874) Basil W. Duke, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Georgetown, Kentucky (d. 1916) William Louis Marshall, American general and engineer, born in Washington, Kentucky (d. 1920) Carrie Nation, American temperance advocate, born in Garrard County, Kentucky (d. 1911) James Lane Allen, American writer (Kentucky Cardinal), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1925) Ezra Seymour Gosney, American philanthropist and eugenicist, born in Kenton County, Kentucky (d. 1942) Louis Brandeis, American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1941) Matthew Ricketts, 1st African American man elected to Neb State Legislature, born in Henry County, Kentucky (d. 1917) Mildred J. Hill, American composer and musician (Happy Birthday To You), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1916) Isaac Murphy, American jockey (won 628 races), born in Clark County, Kentucky (d. 1896) Pete Browning, American baseball player, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1905)

Albert B. Fall

1861-11-26 Albert B. Fall, New Mexico Senator (Teapot Dome Scandal), born in Frankfort, Kentucky

    Mrs. Leslie Carter, American actress and writer (Rocky Mountain Mystery, The Heart of Maryland), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1937) Thomas Hunt Morgan, American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist (Nobel Prize 1933), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1945) Abraham Flexner, American educator, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1959) Patty Smith Hill, American composer, teacher and songwriter ("Happy Birthday To You"), born in Anchorage, Kentucky (d. 1946) Madame Sul-Te-Wan [Nellie Crawford], American actress (The Birth of a Nation, Uncle Tom's Cabin), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1959)

D. W. Griffith

1875-01-22 D.W. Griffith, American film director and producer (Birth of a Nation, Intolerance), born in LaGrange, Kentucky (d. 1948)


1862: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford to Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Brig. Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte Buford wrote this early 1862 letter while a Colonel of the 27th Illinois Infantry. [Colorized Past]

This letter was written by Napoleon Bonaparte Buford who was born in Woodford County, Kentucky on his family’s plantation, “Rose Hill,” on 13 January 1807. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1827. He served in the artillery for eight years, and in 1835, he resigned to become an engineer. He engaged in iron manufacturing and banking at Rock Island, Illinois and became president of the Rock Island and Peoria Railroad, which went bankrupt when major Southern bonds were defaulted with the start of the Civil War.

During the Civil War, he served as colonel of the 27th Illinois Infantry, fighting at the Battle of Belmont. He then commanded the “Flotilla Brigade” of the Army of the Mississippi during the Battle of Island Number Ten. This was a brigade of infantry which served on board the gunboats of the Western Flotilla.

On 16 April 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Buford brigadier general of volunteers to rank from 15 April 1862. Buford commanded the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Mississippi during the siege and Battle of Corinth. In the final days of 1862, he served on the court-martial that convicted Major General Fitz John Porter of cowardice and disobedience. On 29 November 1862, he was appointed major general of volunteers but this appointment expired on 4 March 1863 and he reverted to brigadier general. For the rest of the war, he served as commander of the District of East Arkansas. Buford was mustered out of the army on 24 August 1865.

His younger half-brother, John Buford, was also a West Point graduate and a general in the Union Army during the Civil War, commanding the 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, gaining fame on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg. A cousin, Abraham Buford, was a general in the Confederate States Army.

Buford was government inspector of the Union Pacific Railroad from 1867 to 1869 and a special commissioner of Indian affairs from 1867 to 1868. He died in Chicago on 28 March 1883. [Civil War Talk]

Buford addressed the letter to Major-General Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1798-1870), an 1818 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy and a career soldier. In 1855, he resigned from the Army following a refusal by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis to extend a four-month leave of absence that he had requested for reasons of health. He moved to St. Louis, Missouri, and began a presumed retirement, occupying himself with writing and studies of general literature and philosophy. When the Civil War broke out, Hitchcock applied for a commission, was initially rejected, but was later commissioned a major general and became an advisor to the Secretary of War.

Cairo, [Illinois]
February 25, 1862

General E. A. Hitchcock
Dear Sir,

I wrote you some time ago—just about the time of your being appointed a Major General. I have received no reply. I am anxious to be with you. I have a fine, well-disciplined regiment here. Did you get my letter? The number of incompetent Brigadier Generals making an [inquiry?] about whose hands we may fall into.

On the 23rd I took my whole regiment on the reconnoissance within 3 miles of Columbus.


Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born - HISTORY

1128 &ndash Pope Honorius II grants a papal sanction to the military order Knights Templar, declaring it to be an army of God

1397 &ndash John of Gaunt marries Katherine Rouet

1776 &ndash British forces raid Prudence Island, Rhode Island in an effort to steal sheep but were ambushed by Minutemen from Rhode Island&rsquos Second Company

1785 &ndash John Walter publishes the first issue of &ldquoThe Times&rdquo of London

1807 &ndash Union General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford is born

1808 &ndash US Treasury Secretary, sixth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Salmon P. Chase, is born

1832 &ndash American children&rsquos author, Horatio Alger, Jr. is born

1842 &ndash The lone survivor of a 16,000-strong Anglo-Indian expeditionary force that was slaughtered in its retreat from Kabul, Dr. William Bryden, reaches the British sentry post in Jalalabad, Afghanistan

1846 &ndash President James Polk sends General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops to the Texas border in preparation for war with Mexico

1862 &ndash President Lincoln names Edwin Stanton Secretary of War

1864 &ndash America&rsquos first professional songwriter, Stephen Foster, dies

Related: should-we-fight-transgender-indoctrination-of-children

1887 &ndash Armenian mystic, George Gurdjieff is born

1888 &ndash The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, DC

1898 &ndash French writer Emile Zola&rsquos controversial newspaper editorial, &ldquoJ&rsquoaccuse,&rdquo is printed, exposing a military cover-up concerning Captain Alfred Dreyfus

Related: portraits-of-character

1900 &ndash To combat Czech nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary declares German to be the official language of the Imperial Army

1906 &ndash Telco makes the first ever advertisement for a radio set

1915 &ndash The worst earthquake in Italian history occurs killing 30,000 in the town of Avezzano

1916 &ndash British forces attack Turkish defensive positions on the banks of the Wadi River in the Battle of Wadi

1919 &ndash California votes to ratify the prohibition amendment

1919 &ndash Actor Robert Stack is born

1923 &ndash 5,000 stormtroopers demonstrate in Germany, and Hitler denounces the Weimar Republic

1926 &ndash Author Michael Bond is born

1927 &ndash A woman takes a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, breaking the all-male tradition

1929 &ndash Jazz guitarist, Joe Pass is born

1929 &ndash Lawman Wyatt Earp dies

1931 &ndash The George Washington Memorial Bridge that connects New York and New Jersey is named

1937 &ndash The US bars Americans from serving in the Civil War in Spain

1939 &ndash Arthur &ldquoDoc&rdquo Barker is killed trying to escape from Alcatraz Prison

1941 &ndash Irish author, James Joyce dies

1942 &ndash Representatives of nine German-occupied countries meet in London to declare the prosecution of war criminals

1943 &ndash General Leclerc&rsquos Free French forces merge with Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery&rsquos British forces in Libya

1944 &ndash In an air attack in Germany, plants are destroyed, and 64 US aircraft are lost

1945 &ndash The Red Army begins an offensive in South Poland

1947 &ndash British troops replace striking truck drivers

1950 &ndash The Soviet Union boycotts UN Security Council meetings

1955 &ndash Chase National and the Bank of Manhattan agree to merge, creating the second largest US bank

1958 &ndash Peter Manuel is arrested in Glasgow, Scotland for a series of burglaries turned sexual assaults and murders, even murdering an entire family. He was convicted and hanged in July of 1958

1961 &ndash Actress and producer, Julia Louis-Dreyfus is born

1962 &ndash Comedian Ernie Kovacs is killed in a car wreck

1962 &ndash The first Operation Farm Gate mission is flown when T-28 fighter-bombers support a South Vietnamese outpost under attack from the Viet Cong

1964 &ndash English comedian, actor, singer and guitarist Bill Bailey is born

1965 &ndash Two US planes are shot down in Laos while on a combat mission

1966 &ndash President Lyndon Johnson appoints the first black cabinet member, Robert Weaver, as the head of the Department of Housing

1968 &ndash US reports shifting most air targets from North Vietnam to Laos

1968 &ndash Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison

1969 &ndash Scottish snooker player, Stephen Hendry is born

1970 &ndash Italian cyclist, Marco Pantani is born

1972 &ndash President Richard Nixon announces that 70,000 US troops will withdraw from South Vietnam over the next three months

1976 &ndash In dispute over the Falkland Islands, Argentina outs a British envoy

1978 &ndash American journalist, statistician, and developer of PECOTA, Nate Silver is born

1978 &ndash 38 th Vice President of the US, Hubert Humphrey dies

1980 &ndash The US offers Pakistan a two-year plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan

1982 &ndash Air Florida Flight 90 Boeing 737 crashes into the 14 th Street Bridge in Washington, D.C., shortly after takeoff and then falls into the Potomac River killing 78 people including four motorists

1990 &ndash Virginia&rsquos Douglas Wilder, the first black elected governor of a US state, takes office

1999 &ndash NBA superstar Michael Jordan retires for the second time

2000 &ndash Bill Gates steps down as CEO of Microsoft

2001 &ndash Nearly1,000 are killed in an earthquake in El Salvador

2004 &ndash Joseph Darby, a US soldier at Iraq&rsquos Abu Ghraib prison, reports US abuses of Iraqi prisoners to the Army&rsquos Criminal Investigations Division

2007 &ndash American saxophonist and composer Michael Brecker dies

2008 &ndash The Golden Globes were canceled due to striking writers and actors who threatened to boycott as a gesture of support for the Writers Guild of America

2012 &ndash The cruise ship Costa Concordia sinks and kills 32

Note: At Lanterns Media Network we believe in many voices and solutions, not less. Therefore from time to time we may publish columns and opinions that are not necessarily those belonging to Lanterns Media Network.

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Written by Crystal McCann

Crystal is the Chief Operating Officer of Lanterns Media Network and the owner of Madisons Media. She lives in Texas with her husband and dogs and is the proud mother of two adult children.


Brigadier General Napoleon B. Buford (USA) [CCW]

Napoleon Bonaparte Buford was born in Woodford County, Kentucky on his family’s plantation, “Rose Hill,” on 13 January 1807. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1827. He served in the artillery for eight years, and in 1835, he resigned to become an engineer. He engaged in iron manufacturing and banking at Rock Island, Illinois and became president of the Rock Island and Peoria Railroad, which went bankrupt when major Southern bonds were defaulted with the start of the Civil War.

During the Civil War, he served as colonel of the 27th Illinois Infantry, fighting at the Battle of Belmont. He then commanded the “Flotilla Brigade” of the Army of the Mississippi during the Battle of Island Number Ten. This was a brigade of infantry which served on board the gunboats of the Western Flotilla.

On 16 April 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Buford brigadier general of volunteers to rank from 15 April 1862. Buford commanded the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Mississippi during the siege and Battle of Corinth. In the final days of 1862, he served on the court-martial that convicted Major General Fitz John Porter of cowardice and disobedience. On 29 November 1862, he was appointed major general of volunteers but this appointment expired on 4 March 1863 and he reverted to brigadier general. For the rest of the war, he served as commander of the District of East Arkansas. Buford was mustered out of the army on 24 August 1865.

His younger half-brother, John Buford, was also a West Point graduate and a general in the Union Army during the Civil War, commanding the 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, gaining fame on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg. A cousin, Abraham Buford, was a general in the Confederate States Army.

Buford was government inspector of the Union Pacific Railroad from 1867 to 1869 and a special commissioner of Indian affairs from 1867 to 1868. He died in Chicago on 28 March 1883.


Watch the video: Civil War-I Will Rule The Universe