Roe II DD-418 - History

Roe II DD-418 - History

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Roe II DD-418

Roe II(DD-418: dp. 1,620; 1. 348'; b. 36'1"; dr. 11'5" (mean);s. 35 k.; cpl. 192; a. 4 5", 8 21" tt.; cl Sims)The second Roe (DD-418) was laid down 23 April 1938 by the Charleston Navy Yard, Charleston, S.C., Launched 21 June 1939, sponsored by Mrs. Eleanor Roe Hilton, and commissioned 5 January 1940, Lt. Comdr. R. M. Seruggs in command.Following shakedown, Roe conducted exercises along the east enast and in the Pacific. In the spring of 1941, she returned to the east coast and, during the summer remained primarily in the mid-Atlantic seaboard area. In the fall, she moved northward, to Argentia, to escort merchant convoys between Newfoundland and Ieeland.On that duty when the United States entered World War II, Roe headed south in January 1942, patrolled the approaches to Bermuda and to Norfolk, and in mid February entered New York harbor, whence she resumed North Atlantic convoy runs. Arriving off Ieeland 3 March, she remained until midmonth— in port and on patrol off that island and in the Denmark Strait. Toward the end of the month Roe returned to New York. In April, she escorted ships to Panama, then spent May in New England waters. In June, she completed another North Atlantic run, this time to the United Kingdom and in July she screened larger ships in coastal and Caribbean training operations.In mid-August the destroyer again pointed her bow south. Into October she operated between Trinidad and ports in Brazil, then returned to Norfolk to prepare for Operation "Torch," the landings in North Africa.Assigned to the Northern Attack Group, Roe screened the transports to Mehedia, then provided gunfire support for the troops as they pushed to take Port Lysutey, the Sebou River and the Sale a~rfield. She arrived off the assault area on the night of 7-8 November, ahead of the main group, and, with her SG radar, attempted to locate the beacon submarine,Shad. Unsueeessful, she fixed her own position relative to the jetties and beaches of the landing area, and returned to the main force to help guide it to the transport area. During the early morning landings, she acted as control destroyer off Blue and Yellow beaches, then shifted to gunfire support duties. Shortly after sunrise she assisted Savannah (CL-42) in temporarily silencing hostile fire from the Kasba, an old citadel situated on a eliff commanding the mouth of the Sebou.Through that day and until the 15th, Roe remained in the area to provide gunfire support and screen the larger ships. She then turned westward, arriving back at Hampton Roads on the 26th. During the winter and the following spring, 1943, Roe again performed escort work with tanker runs to Gulf and Caribbean oil ports and resupply and reinforcement convoys to Casablanca. On 10 June, she departed New York for the Mediterranean and her second assault—Operation "Husky," the invasion of Sicily.Arriving at Oran toward the end of the month, she continued on to Bizerte, whence she steamed north with the "Joss" force for Lieata on 8 July. On the 9th, she took up her position in the fire support area off beach Red, near the Torre de Gaffe. Early on the 10th, she and Swanson (DD-443) moved toward Porto Empedoele, an Italian motortorpedo boat base guarded by a minefield 24 miles west of Licata, to investigate small pips which had registered on their radar screens. As both destroyers prepared to open fire on the "enemy" boats, Roe swerved to avoid the minefield and, at the same time, to fall in astern of Swanson. Her speed, however, exceeded Swanson's and, just before 0300, Roe hit Swanson at right angles on the port side shearing off a portion of her own bow and causing Swanson's fireroom to flood. Both ships went dead in the water. Fortunately by 0500 both were mobile.As daylight increased, the Luftwaffe attempted to finish the damaged ships. The destroyers defended themselves and in the process shot down one Ju. 88 with 13 rounds of proximity influenee-fused 5-inch fire to prove the worth of the new fuse in antiaircraft fighting.Following temporary patching at Oran, Roe returned to New York for permanent repairs. In mid-September, she resumed transatlantic convoy duty and completed two runs to North Africa before the end of the year.With the new year, 1944, Roe was transferred to the Pacific. Departing New York 26 January, she transited the Panama Canal and traversed the Pacific to report to CTF 76 at Cape Sudest 12 March. From there, and other New Guinea ports and anchorages, she escorted 7th Phib Force ships transporting Allied troops up the coast and through neighboring islands, and provided gunfire support in target areas. From 16 to 21 March, she supported operations on Manus. In early April, she transported Army personnel from Manus to Rambutyo, then prepared for the landings at Humboldt Bay, which she supported 22 April. In mid-May, she assisted the offensive in the Toem-Wadke area; then, at the end of the month, screened LST's to Biak. Fire support duty and escort of reinforcements and supplies to Biak continued into June. On the 29th, she provided eall-fire support for Army units fighting northeast of the Driniumor River. Then, in July, the destroyer shifted to Noemfoor to conduct a prelanding bombardment and to give postlanding support fire.Relieved at midmonth, Roe departed the Admiralties and steamed for Majuro, where she joined the 5th Fleet. For the next 6 weeks, she served as an aircraft rescue ship in areas off Maloelap, Wotje, Mili, and Jaluit. Patrol, picket, and escort duties then kept her shuttling hetween and amongst the Marshalls and Marianas, primarily the latter, until early December when she joined TG 94.9 for a bombardment of Iwo Jima.Completing the assignment on the 8th, the force returned to Saipan, whence Roe conducted two search and rescue missions and one mercy run, carrying a doctor to a convoy bound for Saipan, before heading out for further strikes against Iwo Jima on the 24th and 27th. On the 24th, Roe sank a small trawler and, with Case (DD-370), sent to the bottom another ship—believed to have been a destroyer converted for fast transport service. On the 27th, she destroyed several small craft and damaged buildings and antiaircraft installations in and near the island's west boat basin.Another strike on the Voleano and Bonin Islands during the first week in January 1945, was followed by availability at Ulithi and resumption of patrol and escort work from Guam. In late April, she returned to the Voleano-Bonin area for radar picket and search and rescue operations during air strikes against the Japanese home islands. At the end of May she resumed operations in the Marianas and in June she received orders to the west coast.Roe arrived in San Francisco Bay on 29 July, and was undergoing a yard overhaul when the war ended, 14 August. Then designated for inactivation, Roe was decommissioned 30 October 1945 and was struck from the Navy list 16 November. She was sold in August 1947.Roe (DD-418) earned six battle stars during World War II.

Roe II DD-418 - History

Papers (1941-1944) including correspondence, Naval flight School Handbook, memorabilia, and photographs.

Biographical/historical information

Gordon W. Hooper was a U.S. Navy recruiter and worked mainly in the Northeastern United States during World War II.

Scope and arrangement

The collection contains a U.S. Navy Flight School Handbook that deals primarily with recruitment and training of Naval officers and Naval Reserve personnel in the fields of aeronautics, aviation, selected service, lifesaving, graduate work, and the supply corps. The handbook also contains information pertaining to numerous U.S. Naval ships and submarines including their naming, commissioning, sponsorship, and dedication legislation regarding U.S. Naval finances and the transfer of retired and reserve personnel.

Materials concerning specific ships include an account of the sinking of a Japanese trawler and destroyer by destroyer USS ROE (DD-418) near Iwo Jima the fifth anniversary history (1944) of the destroyer USS LANG (DD-399) a list of operations the LANG participated in during World War II a Thanksgiving 1944 menu for the LANG that includes a list of officers and crew an invitation and menu for the commissioning of the USS SWEARER (1943) and miscellaneous photocopied items.

Photographs of the destroyer USS J. FRED TALBOTT (DD-156) and battleship USS TEXAS (BB-35) are included.

Administrative information
Custodial History

September 9, 1993 , 1 item World War II Naval Flight School Handbook.

May 25, 1994 , 13 items USS LANG (DD-399) ship's history and menu program, photographs of USS TEXAS and USS TALBOTT, and miscellany. Gift of Mrs. Helen Hooper, Leviltown, NY.

USS Roe DD-418 (1940-1947)

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Without knowing this history, Williams argues, it’s difficult to understand why pro-life views have had such staying power in American politics, even as public opinion on other social issues, such as LGBT rights and birth-control use, has steadily shifted to become more permissive. Abortion, he says, has a different history. Its early opponents thought it was their duty, and their government’s duty, to protect the unborn alongside the poor and the weak. They believed their position offered women empowerment, not oppression.

Most importantly, this history shows how contorted the abortion debate has become, as women’s bodies and children’s futures have been turned into rhetorical proving grounds for politicians left and right. Today, pro-life Democrats are nearly extinct, and openly pro-choice Republicans rarely make it to a national stage like this year’s presidential race. Fifty years ago, this wasn’t the case. What happened to America’s progressive pro-lifers?

If the first advocates of abortion legalization in America were doctors, their most vocal opponents were their Catholic colleagues. By the late 19th century, nearly all states had outlawed abortion, except in cases in which the mother’s life was threatened. As Williams writes, “The nation’s newspapers took it for granted that abortion was a dangerous, immoral activity, and that those who performed abortions were criminals.” But in the 1930s, a few doctors began calling for less harsh abortion bans—mostly “liberal or secular Jews who believed that Catholic attempts to use public law to enforce the Church’s own standards of sexuality morality violated people’s personal freedom,” according to Williams. In 1937, the National Federation of Catholic Physicians’ Guilds issued a statement condemning these abortion supporters, who, they said, would “make the medical practitioner the grave-digger of the nation.” Although some Protestants had been involved in early efforts to prohibit early-term abortions, in these early years, resistance was overwhelmingly led by Catholics.

Some hospitals interpreted abortion laws loosely, relying on psychiatrists to certify that a woman might be at risk of suicide if she were forced to carry her pregnancy to term. But even some of the doctors who performed these procedures and advocated abortion-law liberalization—like Alan Guttmacher, a New York gynecologist who went on to head Planned Parenthood in the 1960s and is the namesake of one of today’s most prominent pro-choice advocacy organizations—shrunk from full-on support of the procedure, hoping that birth control would eliminate its need. “I don’t like killing,” Guttmacher said, but he believed abortion was justified if it preserved a mother’s life.

Meanwhile, a handful of courts were taking on a different aspect of the debate: whether abortion was a violation of human rights. From 1939 to 1958, five state supreme courts and the U.S. District Court in D.C. handed down rulings that recognized fetal personhood. These rulings lined up with the convictions of theologically conservative Catholics, who believed that life begins at conception, and this group may very well have influenced the decisions. As Guttmacher wrote in 1963, “The Catholic Church is so well mobilized and makes up such a large percentage of the population that changing the law of any state in the Northeast of the U.S.A. is a virtual impossibility at least for the next several decades.”

But though these Catholics may have been theologically conservative, most of them were not what most Americans would consider politically conservative, either by midcentury or contemporary standards. “There were some political conservatives who participated in the early movement, but for the most part, the public rhetoric of the movement tended to be grounded in liberalism as seen through a mid-20th century Catholic lens,” Williams said. “It’s New Deal, Great Society liberalism.”

For most mid-century American Catholics, opposing abortion followed the same logic as supporting social programs for the poor and creating a living wage for workers. Catholic social teachings, outlined in documents such as the 19th-century encyclical Rerum novarum, argued that all life should be preserved, from conception until death, and that the state has an obligation to support this cause. “They believed in expanded pre-natal health insurance, and in insurance that would also provide benefits for women who gave birth to children with disabilities,” Williams said. They wanted a streamlined adoption process, aid for poor women, and federally funded childcare. Though Catholics wanted abortion outlawed, they also wanted the state to support poor women and families.

Other progressives, though, took a more calculating approach to poverty and family planning. Some proponents of the New Deal believed birth control could be used to implement government policy—a means of reducing the number of people in poverty and, ultimately, saving the state money, Williams said. Later, as technology made it easier to detect fetal deformities, abortion proponents commonly argued that women should have the option of terminating their pregnancies if doctors saw irregularities. “It was a widespread belief among abortion-liberalization advocates … that society would be better off if fewer severely deformed babies were born,” Williams said. The Catholics who opposed abortion “saw this as a very utilitarian perspective,” he said. “If you believed the fetus was a human being, this life would be destroyed for someone else’s quality of life, and they saw this as a very dangerous way of thinking.”

At times, there was a dark racial component to pro-abortion and birth-control rhetoric. In the early 20th century, for example, “there was substantial support in some areas of the country for the eugenic use of birth control to limit the reproductive capabilities of poor, sexually promiscuous, or mentally disabled women—especially those who were African American,” Williams writes in his book. Decades later, as public-aid spending ballooned in the 1960s, a new kind of racism entered the abortion debate. “Many whites stereotyped welfare recipients as single African American women who had become pregnant out of wedlock and were ‘breeding children as a cash crop,’ as Alabama Governor George Wallace said,” William writes. “Wallace eventually took a strong stance against abortion, but like some of his fellow conservatives,” he was an early supporter of legalization.

The ’60s saw the first serious wave of abortion legalization proposals in state houses, starting with legislation in California. Catholic groups mobilized against these efforts with mixed success, repeatedly hitting a few major obstacles. For one thing, the “movement” wasn’t really a movement yet—abortion opponents didn’t refer to their beliefs as “right-to-life” or “pro-life” until Cardinal James McIntyre started the Right to Life League in 1966. After that, anti-abortion activists began getting more organized. But because Catholics had led opposition efforts for so long, abortion had also become something of a “Catholic issue,” alienating potential Protestant allies—and voters. “African Americans were among the demographic group most likely to oppose abortion—in fact, opposition to abortion was higher among African American Protestants than it was even among white Catholics,” Williams writes. “But pro-life organizations had little connection to black institutions—particularly black churches—and they were far too Catholic and too white to appeal to most African American Protestants.”

Catholic clergy quietly began starting state-level organizations, seeding the initial funding but stepping aside to let Protestant leaders take leadership roles. Many also de-emphasized their opposition to birth control. “They accepted as leaders in their movement mainline Christians who were advocates for contraception,” Williams said. And “they tried to provide resources for women who had gotten pregnant out of wedlock—they wanted to reduce the stigma.”

The first big losses for the pro-life movement happened in 1970. Hawaii, Alaska, and New York became the first states to legalize elective abortion, no longer requiring doctors to perform the procedure only when a woman’s life was in danger. Although Hawaii only let residents seek the procedure, New York did not establish the same requirement. “In the first fifteen months after New York legalized elective abortion, the state’s doctors performed 200,000 abortions,” Williams writes, “at least 60 percent of which were for nonresidents.”

Many pro-lifers reacted with horror. For a long time, many Catholics had been “squeamish about engaging in a detailed discussion of a matter that violated their sense of modesty and propriety,” Williams writes. After 1970’s legislative defeats, their tactics changed. Pamphlets became more graphic. Advocates delighted in fetal photography they believed that seeing a fetus’s infant-like features would be enough to convince any American of its personhood. As newspapers tilted in favor of legalization efforts, pro-lifers increased their efforts to distribute these photos. “By distributing these shocking images,” Williams wrote, they claimed “they were simply telling the truth about a subject that the news media refused to cover.”

As more states debated liberalized abortion laws in the early ’70s, the pro-life movement finally found its momentum. Although they suffered a number of legislative defeats, there were also victories—in 1972, for example, right-to-life advocates successfully organized voters in Michigan and North Dakota against referendums to legalize abortion. Those involved in the movement were more diverse than ever, including anti-war pacifists, college students, and, crucially, many women. It seemed like maybe, just maybe, the push for abortion legalization could be stopped.

In 1973, everything changed. In Roe v. Wade and an accompanying decision, Doe v. Bolton, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that women have a constitutional right to get an abortion, weighed against the state’s obligation to protect women’s health and potential human lives. Suddenly, being pro-life meant standing against the state’s intervention into family affairs, or at the very least, the court’s interference with citizens’ rights to determine what their state laws should be. Ronald Reagan, who once signed one of the country’s first abortion-liberalization laws as governor of California, went on the record supporting the “aims” of a Human Life Amendment, which would change the Constitution to prohibit abortion. New leaders took up the pro-life cause, including Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority, which “connected the issue to a bevy of other politically conservative causes—such as campaigns to restore prayer in schools, stop the advances of the gay-rights movement, and even defend against the spread of international communism through nuclear-arms build-up,” Williams writes. Advocates shifted their focus toward the Supreme Court and securing justices who would overturn Roe. And in recent years, a significant number of state legislatures have placed incremental restrictions on abortion, making it harder for clinics to operate and for women to get the procedure.

Abortion also became a debate almost exclusively about gender and sexuality, and largely a debate among women. For decades, men led both pro- and anti-abortion advocacy efforts women were silenced by default, largely absent from politics and medicine, or they were actively excluded from the opposition movement by Catholic clergy. In the 1970s, that changed. “The debate about abortion was a conflict over gender, even though most pro-lifers of the late 1960s and early 1970s had been slow to recognize this fact,” Williams writes. “It was not a conflict of men against women, as some pro-choicers believed instead, it was a debate between two different groups of women.”

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On the pro-choice side, abortion supporters believed they were not only defending women’s right to control their bodies—“they were giving [poor] women the tools they needed to voluntarily limit the size of their families.” But some opponents also identified as “pro-life feminists,” believing abortion gave men an excuse to treat women as sexual objects. As Williams writes, they thought “women’s rights would be respected only when their roles as life-givers and mothers were fully honored.”

As more evangelicals joined the movement in the years after Roe, members of the pro-life movement became more focused on sexual conservatism, pairing their opposition to abortion with a general stance against the mores of the sexual revolution. From the Falwell years forward, abortion was merely one in a suite of conservative issues, solidifying the pro-life movement’s alliance with the Republican Party. But, as Williams points out, the Republican Party has never been a fully comfortable home for the social-justice ideals of those who started the movement. “Republicans had given little support to the pro-life cause before Roe,” he writes, and the party “gave scant attention to poverty reduction, social-welfare provisions, or the other causes that had interested pro-life leaders of an earlier generation.” Yet, in a Democratic world heavily influenced by organizations such as Emily’s List and NARAL, it’s become increasingly difficult for politicians on the left to take a boldly pro-life position. As the Southern Baptist leader Russell Moore told me in an interview last year, “I wish we were in a situation where we had two pro-life [parties]. I started my career working for a pro-life Democratic congressperson, and he was pro-life, pro-family. That world doesn’t exist anymore.”

Mục lục

Roe được đặt lườn tại Xưởng hải quân Charleston vào ngày 23 tháng 4 năm 1938. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 21 tháng 6 năm 1939 được đỡ đầu bởi bà Eleanor Roe Hilton và nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Mỹ vào ngày 5 tháng 1 năm 1940 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân R. M. Scruggs.

Trước chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy, Roe tiến hành huấn luyện thực tập dọc theo vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ và tại Thái Bình Dương. Và mùa Xuân năm 1941, nó quay trở lại vùng bờ Đông và trong mùa Hè đã hoạt động chủ yếu tại khu vực giữa Đại Tây Dương. Sang mùa Thu, nó di chuyển gần lên phía Bắc, đến Căn cứ Hải quân Argentia, để hộ tống các đoàn tàu buôn đi lại giữa Newfoundland và Iceland.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Đại Tây Dương Sửa đổi

Sau khi Nhật Bản bất ngờ Tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941, Roe hướng về phía Nam vào tháng 1 năm 1942, tuần tra các lối tiếp cận quần đảo Bermuda và đến Norfolk, Virginia. Vào giữa tháng 2, nó đi đến New York tiếp nối các chuyến hộ tống vận tải vượt Bắc Đại Tây Dương. Đi đến ngoài khơi Iceland vào ngày 3 tháng 3, nó tiếp tục ở lại cho đến giữa tháng, tuần tra ngoài khơi hòn đảo và tại eo biển Đan Mạch. Đến cuối tháng, nó quay trở về New York và sang tháng 4, nó hộ tống tàu bè đi Panama, trải qua tháng 5 tại vùng biển New England. Trong tháng 6, nó hoàn tất một chuyến đi khác vượt Đại Tây Dương, lần này đến tận quần đảo Anh, và trong tháng 7, nó hộ tống các tàu chiến lớn trong các hoạt động huấn luyện dọc bờ biển và tại vùng biển Caribe. Vào giữa tháng 8, chiếc tàu khu trục đi về phía Nam, và cho đến tháng 10 đã hoạt động giữa Trinidad và các cảng thuộc Brazil, rồi quay về Norfolk để chuẩn bị cho Chiến dịch Torch, cuộc đổ bộ lực lượng lớn của Đồng Minh lên Bắc Phi.

Được phân về lực lượng tấn công phía Bắc, Roe hộ tống các tàu vận chuyển đi đến Mehedia, rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho lực lượng trên bờ khi họ tiến quân để chiếm Port Lyautey trên sông Sebou và sân bay Salé. Nó dẫn trước lực lượng chính đi đến khu vực tấn công trong đêm 7-8 tháng 11, dùng radar SG để cố tìm kiếm chiếc tàu ngầm Shad làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc. Không tìm thấy chiếc tàu ngầm, nó tự xác định vị trí tương đối của mình nhờ đê chắn sóng và các bãi tại khu vực đổ bộ, rồi quay trở lại cùng lực lượng chính giúp dẫn đường họ đến khu vực vận chuyển. Trong cuộc đổ bộ vào sáng hôm sau, nó hoạt động như tàu kiểm soát vận tải tại các bãi Blue và Yellow, rồi chuyển sang nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ. Trong buổi sáng hôm đó, nó cùng tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Savannah áp đảo các khẩu đội pháo đối phương tại Kasba, một pháo đài cổ nằm trên vách núi kiểm soát khu vực cửa sông Sebou.

Cho đến ngày 15 tháng 11, Roe tiếp tục ở lại khu vực tấn công bắn pháo hỗ trợ, và sau đó hộ tống cho các tàu chiến lớn. Nó sau đó lên đường quay trở về nhà, về đến Hampton Roads, Virginia vào ngày 26 tháng 11. Trong mùa Đông và mùa Xuân tiếp theo 1943, nó làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống các tàu chở dầu đi lại tại vùng vịnh Mexico và biển Caribe, cũng như các đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển tiếp liệu và lực lượng tăng viện sang Casablanca. Vào ngày 10 tháng 6, nó rời New York để đi sang Địa Trung Hải cho chiến dịch Đổ bộ lên Sicily.

Đi đến Oran vào cuối tháng 6, Roe tiếp tục đi đến Bizerte, nơi nó khởi hành đi lên phía Bắc, đi đến Licata vào ngày 8 tháng 7. Sang ngày hôm sau, nó chiếm vị trí bắn pháo hỗ trợ ngoài khơi bãi Red gần bãi biển Torre di Gaffe. Sáng sớm ngày 10 tháng 7, nó cùng Swanson di chuyển về phía Porto Empedocle, một căn cứ tàu phóng lôi Ý được bảo vệ bởi một bãi mìn cách 24 dặm (39 km) về phía Tây Licata để xác minh một mục tiêu hiện diện trên màn hình radar. Trong khi cả hai con tàu sẵn sàng để nổ súng vào tàu "đối phương", Roe cơ động để tránh bãi mìn nên đi vào phía sau của Swanson. Tuy nhiên, tốc độ của nó lại nhanh hơn Swanson, nên ngay trước 03 giờ 00, Roe đâm trúng trực diện Swanson bên mạn trái, khiến nó bị mất một phần mũi tàu và khiến Swanson bị ngập nước phòng nồi hơi. Cả hai con tàu bị chết đứng giữa biển, nhưng đến 05 giờ 00 cả hai lại có thể di chuyển được.

Sáng hôm đó, máy bay của Không quân Đức tìm cách kết liễu hai con tàu bị hư hại. RoeSwanson chống trả tự vệ, bắn rơi một máy bay ném bom Junkers Ju 88 bằng đạn pháo 5 inch với kíp nổ tiếp cận, chứng tỏ giá trị của loại kíp nổ kiểu mới trong việc phòng không. Sau khi được sửa chữa tạm thời tại Oran, Roe quay trở về New York để được sửa chữa triệt để. Đến giữa tháng 9, nó tiếp nối hoạt động hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương, thực hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi đến Bắc Phi trước cuối năm đó.

Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương Sửa đổi

Sang đầu năm mới 1944, Roe được điều động sang Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương. Nó rời New York vào ngày 26 tháng 1, băng qua kênh đào Panama, và trình diện để hoạt động cùng Tư lệnh Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 76 tại mũi Sudest vào ngày 12 tháng 3. Từ các cảng thuộc New Guinea, nó hộ tống các tàu đổ bộ thuộc Đệ Thất hạm đội vận chuyển binh lính Đồng Minh tiến dọc theo bờ biển và các đảo lân cận, bắn pháo hỗ trợ xuống các khu vực mục tiêu. Từ ngày 16 đến ngày 21 tháng 3, nó hỗ trợ các hoạt động tại đảo Manus. Sang đầu tháng 4, nó vận chuyển binh lính Lục quân từ Manus đến đảo Rambutyo, rồi chuẩn bị cho việc đổ bộ lên vịnh Humboldt, nơi nó hỗ trợ vào ngày 22 tháng 4. Vào ngày 29 tháng 4, nó bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho binh lính Lục quân đang chiến đấu về phía Tây Bắc sông Driniumor. Đến giữa tháng 5, nó giúp cho việc tấn công tại khu vực Toem-Wakde rồi vào cuối tháng đã hỗ trợ cho các tàu đổ bộ LST tại Biak. Các nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ và hộ tống vận tải tiếp liệu và tăng cường đến Biak được tiếp tục cho đến tháng 6, rồi trong tháng 7, chiếc tàu khu trục chuyển đến Noemfoor, thực hiện phá phá chuẩn bị rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ sau khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ tại đây.

Được thay phiên vào giữa tháng, Roe rời khu vực quần đảo Admiralty để đi đến Majuro, nơi nó gia nhập Đệ Ngũ hạm đội. Trong sáu tuần lễ tiếp theo sau, nó phục vụ như tàu cứu hộ máy bay tại khu vực ngoài khơi Maloelap, Wotje, Mili và Jaluit. Các nhiệm vụ tuần tra, canh phòng và hộ tống tại các khu vực quần đảo Marshall và Mariana, chủ yếu là tại Mariana, kéo dài cho đến đầu tháng 12, khi nó gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 94.9 cho một đợt bắn phá Iwo Jima. Hoàn thành nhiệm vụ vào ngày 8 tháng 12, lực lượng rút lui về Saipan, nơi nó thực hiện hai nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm giải cứu và đưa một bác sĩ sang một đoàn tàu hướng đến Saipan, trước khi lại lên đường bắn phá Iwo Jima vào các ngày 24 và 27 tháng 12. Trong ngày 24 tháng 12, nó đánh chìm một tàu đánh cá, và cùng với Case đánh chìm một chiếc khác, được tin là một tàu khu trục nhỏ được cải biến thành tàu vận chuyển cao tốc. Sang ngày 27 tháng 12, nó tiêu diệt nhiều tàu nhỏ, phá hủy nhà cửa và các công sự phòng không ở phía Tây hòn đảo.

Một đợt tấn công khác xuống các quần đảo Volcano và Bonin diễn ra vào tuần đầu của tháng 1 năm 1945, tiếp nối bởi một đợt nghỉ ngơi tại Ulithi trước khi tiếp nối hoạt động tuần tra và hộ tống từ Guam. Vào cuối tháng 4, nó quay trở lại khu vực Volcano-Bonin làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc radar và tìm kiếm giải cứu trong các hoạt động không kích xuống các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản. Đến cuối tháng 5, nó quay trở lại hoạt động tại khu vực Mariana, và sang tháng 6, nó được lệnh quay trở về vùng bờ Tây. Chiếc tàu khu trục về đến vịnh San Francisco vào ngày 29 tháng 7, và đang trải qua một đợt đại tu khi chiến tranh kết thúc vào ngày 14 tháng 8. Roe được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 30 tháng 10 năm 1945 tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 16 tháng 11, và nó bị bán để tháo dỡ vào tháng 8 năm 1947.

Roe được tặng thưởng sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.

Roe II DD-418 - History

History of USS HULL (DD-350)

Recommended reading for additional DD-350 history

Down to the Sea: An Epic Story of Naval Disaster and Heroism in World War II

(click picture to view cover)

(click picture to view)

Newsweek Battle Baby compliments of Pat Douhan SOM2 DD-350

All DD-350 pages compliments of Dave Vrooman EM3 '60 - '62

USS Hull (DD-350), the third of the Farraguts, was the first to be built by a government shipyard. The new destroyer was assigned to the New York Navy Yard for construction. Hull was named for Captain Isaac Hull, skipper of USS Constitution in her epic battle with the British frigate Guerriere during the War of 1812. She was the fourth United States vessel and the third destroyer to bear the name. The destroyer Hull was laid down 7 March 1933 launched 31 January 1934, sponsored by Miss Patricia Louise Platt and commissioned 11 January 1935, with Commander R. S. Wentworth commanding.

Like her two sisters following a shakedown cruise, which took her to the Azores, Portugal, and the British Isles, Hull was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years. , Hull was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years.

During the summer of 1936, she cruised to Alaska. In April 1937 she took part in fleet exercises in Hawaiian waters, ultimately calling Pearl Harbor her homeport when the fleet transferred from the mainland to the advanced anchorage on 12 October 1939. During this increasingly tense pre-war period, Hull often acted as plane guard to the Navy's Pacific carriers during the perfection of tactics, which would be a central factor in America's victory in World War II. She continued these operations until the outbreak of the war.

The pattern of fleet problems, plane guard duty and patrolling was rudely interrupted 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and other Hawaiian Military facilities. Hull was alongside tender USS Dobbin (AD-3) undergoing repairs, but quickly put her anti-aircraft batteries into operation. Her antiaircraft battery chased off several attackers and assisted in splashing others. As the main object of the raid was battleships, the destroyer suffered no hits and with the end of the attack came extraordinary efforts to raise steam. Scant hours later, she was able to sortie from Pearl to escort USS Enterprise (CV-6) back to the still-smoking port. During the next critical months of the war, Hull operated with Admiral Wilson Brown's Task Force 11, screening USS Lexington (CV-2) in important strikes on Japanese bases in the Solomons. Her return to Pearl Harbor 26 March meant 3 months of convoy duty in the submarine threatened waters between Hawaii, and the West Coast of the United States.

Hull was soon back in the thick of combat however. She sailed, on the first anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, for Suvu, Fiji Islands, to prepare for America's first offensive land thrust, the amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. In company with her sisters, she departed 26 July for the Solomons, and on the day of the landings, 7 August 1942, she fought off enemy air attacks, screened cruisers during shore bombardment, and then took up station as antisubmarine protection for the transports. Next day she helped repel strong enemy bombing attacks, shooting down several of the attackers, and that evening performed the sad duty of sinking transport USS George F. Elliott(AP-13), burning beyond control, the transport's wounds proved too severe for damage control forces. On 9 August, the destroyer sank a small schooner off Guadalcanal, departing that evening for Espiritu Santo. During the difficult weeks on Guadalcanal, Hull made three voyages with transports and warships in support of the troops, undergoing air attacks 9 and 14 September. For the next two years, Imperial Japanese forces felt the presence of the far-ranging destroyer from the Aleutians to the Southern Pacific. DD-350 supported swift strikes against enemy held islands in the Central Pacific, sometimes as a diversion to the true invasion targets, sometimes as a prelude to full-scale landings.

The ship returned to Pearl Harbor 20 October, and spent the remainder of the year with battleship Colorado (BB-45) in the New Hebrides. She sailed 29 January from Pearl Harbor bound for repairs at San Francisco, arriving 7 February 1943. Upon completion, she moved to the bleak Aleutians, arriving Adak 16 April, and began a series of training maneuvers with battleships and cruisers in the northern waters. As the Navy moved in to retake Attu in May, Hull continued her patrol duties, and during July and early August, she took part in numerous bombardments of Kiska Island. The ship also took part in the landings on Kiska 15 August, only to find that the Japanese had evacuated their last foothold in the Aleutian chain.

Hull returned to the Central Pacific after the Kiska operation, arriving Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. She departed with the fleet 3 days later for strikes on Wake Island, and operated with escort carriers during diversionary strikes designed to mask the Navy's real objective-the Gilberts. Hull bombarded Makin during this assault 20 November, and with the invasion well underway arrived in convoy at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1943. From there, she returned to Oakland 21 December for amphibious exercises. Next on, the island road to Japan was the Marshall Islands, and Hull sailed with Task Force 53 from San Diego 13 January 1944. She arrived 31 January off Kwajalein, screening transports in the reserve area, and through February carried out screening and patrol duties off Eniwetok and Majuro. Joining a battleship and carrier group, the ship moved to Mille Atoll 18 March, and took part in a devastating bombardment. Hull also took part in the bombardment of Wotje 22 March.

The veteran ship next participated in the devastating raid on the great Japanese base at Truk 29-30 April, after which she arrived Majuro 4 May 1944. There she joined Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's battleships for a thrust into the Marianas and the invasion of Saipan. Hull bombarded Saipan 13 June, covered minesweeping operations with gunfire, and patrolled during the initial landing 15 June. Two days later DD-350 was detached and with other ships steamed out to join Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carriers as the Japanese made preparations to close the Marianas for a decisive naval battle. The great fleets approached each other 19 June for the biggest carrier engagement of the war, and as four large air raids hit the American dispositions fighter cover from the carriers of Hull's Task Group 58.2 and surface fire decimated the Japanese planes. With an able assist from American submarines, Mitscher succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers in addition to inflicting fatal losses on the Japanese naval air arm during "The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". Hull's accurate antiaircraft fire, now considerably more formidable than the .50 cal. machine guns she used at Pearl Harbor just thirty months before, contributed to the "ring of steel" protecting the carriers from the wrath of the Japanese. Mitscher's forces so decimated the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy's aircrews that her carriers were never to effectively threaten the Allies again.

During July, the destroyer operated with carrier groups off Guam, and after the assault, 21 July patrolled off the island. In August she returned to Seattle, arriving the 25th, and underwent a yard refit that kept her in the States until 23 October. When she anchored at Pearl Harbor. Hull was assigned to screen the Third Fleet refueling group which kept the fast carriers in the Central Pacific operational, departing 20 November 1944 to rendezvous with fast carrier striking forces in the Philippine Sea.

Suddenly, Hull's luck had changed. Fueling began 17 December, but increasingly heavy seas forced cancellation later that day. The refueling group became engulfed in the approaching typhoon Cobra next day, with barometers falling to very low levels and winds increasing above 90 knots. At about 1100 18 December Hull became locked "in irons," in the trough of the mountainous sea and unable to steer. All hands worked feverishly to maintain integrity and keep the ship afloat during the heavy rolls, but finally, in the words of her commander, Lieutenant Commander J. A. Marks: "The ship remained over on her side at an angle of 80 degrees or more as the water flooded into her upper structures. I remained on the port wing of the bridge until the water flooded up to me, then I stepped off into the water as the ship rolled over on her way down."

The typhoon swallowed many of the survivors, but valiant rescue work by Tabberer (DD-418) and other ships of the fleet in the days that followed saved the lives of 7 officers and 55 enlisted men.

Hull received 10 battle stars for World War II service.

William J. Ruhe

Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Sil Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Silver Stars and the Navy Unit Commendation

During the Korean Conflict he commanded the USS Sea Devil SS-400, and in 1959 he was assigned as Commander of Submarine Division 22. He also served as commanding officer of the Naval Reserve Center in his hometown of Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Captain Ruhe came aboard USS Topeka CLG-8 as Commanding Officer in December, 1964 and served in that capacity until October, 1965.

After retirement he was employed by General Dynamics as Corporate Director of Marine Programs.

Captain Ruhe wrote two books about his naval service: War in the Boats: My WWII Submarine Battles, and Slow Dance to Pearl Harbor: A Tin Can Ensign in Prewar America. He also wrote the submariners song "Down,Down Underneath the Ocean".

He passed away at his home in McLean, Virginia on November 4, 2003.
. more

60 Pictures of Easy Company

The 506th, which is part of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division, was established in 1942 at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, and underwent extensive training under strict rules and regulations. The most physically challenging part of their training was the regular running of Currahee, a 1,735 ft (529 m) steep hill.

The hill itself became an unofficial symbol of the entire regiment, which adopted the nickname “Currahee,” and E Company also adopted the Cherokee word as its motto―We stand alone together.

Major Richard Winters Captain Lewis Nixon & Lieutenant Harry Welsh Austria 1945

While the “E” stands for “Easy,” these men were anything but, jumping into Normandy behind enemy lines as part of the 2nd Battalion hours before the invasion.

During Operation Overlord, E Company was part of the airborne invading force which was to secure the rear and provide cover until the Omaha and Utah beachheads were linked.

Among their most famous endeavors was taking and holding the town of Carentan―a crucial strategic point, without which the outcome of the Allied invasion could have taken a different turn.

General Anthony Clement “Nuts” McAuliffe

After the liberation of France, E Company was sent to assist the British forces around Eindhoven, as part of Operation Market Garden.

In late October 1944, they would play a key role in evacuating over 100 British soldiers who were trapped behind German lines near the village of Renkum, close to the town of Arnhem.

Richard Winters in Holland, October 1944

Their next stop was the winter offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 in Belgium. The men from Easy Company took part in the famous Battle of the Bulge, and fought under horrible winter conditions, suffering from a general lack of supplies and ammunition.

Some of their more notable actions from this period involved taking control of the Bois Jacques woods area, and the frustrating attack on the town of Foy, where they dealt with fierce resistance as well as the breakdown of the chain of command.

Easy Company near Foy

However, Foy was eventually captured from the enemy, as the German line in Bastogne fell apart. The figurative gates of Germany were finally open.

As the war was nearing its end, the company was assigned to occupation duties which included guarding Berchtesgaden, better known as Adolf Hitler’s famous Eagle’s Nest. E Company’s contribution to the fight was rewarded with patrol duties in mostly safe areas during the last few months of the war.

Although the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment is still in service as a training unit of the U.S. Army, the direct lineage of E Company is today inactive.

More photos

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

Popeye Wynn and Hank Zimmerman

Burr Smith was killed by a direct mortar hit along with PENKALA near FOY

Joe Lesniewski Herbert M. Sobel Sr.

Staff Sergeant Myron N. “Mike” Ranney

Robert “Popeye” Wynn

George Luz and ‘Babe’ Heffron

David Webster

David Kenyon Webster

Floyd Talbert, unidentified soldier, Paul Rogers and Forrest Guth

Richard Winters (facing the camera in the back) teaching his soldiers to pack their parachutes. Skip Muck is the man on the right looking at the camera.

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

William Dukeman Pat Christenson, Denver ‘Bull’ Randleman and Bill Dukeman

Joe Toye and Don Malarkey

Easy Company

Don Malarkey, Joe Toye and Skip Muck

Donald Hoobler

William J. “Wild Bill“ Guarnere

Joe Liebgott Earl McClung

Floyd Talbert Earl ‘One Lung’ McClung Don Malarkey and Floyd Talbert

Captain Richard D. Winters and Captain Lewis Nixon

Skip Muck and Chuck. Easy Company, 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division.

Lynn D. Campton, Easy Company

Easy Company members Joe Liebgott, Eugene Roe and Burton Christenson in Eindhoven, 1944.

101st Airborne Medic Eugene Roe, a member of Easy Company, Band of brothers.

Carwood Lipton

Frank Perconte

Left to right: Forrest Guth, Floyd Talbert, John Eubanks, unknown, Francis Mellet on D-Day

George Luz (1921-1998) Fought in Normandy, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge. Luz is credited with keeping Easy Company morale up with his humor in dire times.

Smith, Muck, Malarkey, Randelmann, Serila, Sheehy, Burgess, Lowery, Grant, Cunningham, bain, Toye at Camp McKall

Easy Company’s David Kenyon Webster, author of “Parachute Infantry – An American Paratrooper’s Memoir of D-Day and the Fall of the Third Reich”

Forrest Guth and Floyd Talbert with locals on D-day morning

Albert Blithe at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, in 1942.

Eugene Roe

Forrest Guth (1921 2009) One of the original 140 men who trained under Sobel at Camp Toccoa. Guth had the ability to repair and modify weapons. For instance he could make an M-1 rifle fully automatic. He became the armorer for his comrades. Guth’s uniform was also unique Guth sewed many extra pockets on it. Guth fought in D-Day, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge.

William ‘Wild Bill’ Guarnere

Colonel Robert Frederick Sink

Don Malarkey, left, with Burr Smith in Austria near war’s end.

Technical Sergeant Donald Malarkey

Major Richard Winters.

Staff Sergeant Darrell Powers

Private First Class Edward Heffron

Richard Winters at the end of training

Gordon Carson and Frank Perconte, Easy Company, 101st Airborne

Captain Herbert M. Sobel

Easy Company during Operation Market Garden

Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe and his staff gathered inside Bastogne’s Heintz Barracks for Christmas dinner December 25th, 1944. This military barracks served as the Division Main Command Post during the siege of Bastogne, Belgium during World War II.

A. V. Roe and Company (Avro)

A. V. Roe and Company, better known simply as Avro, was one of the most famous of all British aircraft manufacturers, best known for the iconic Avro Lancaster bomber. Originally founded in 1910 by the aircraft pioneer Alliot Verdon Roe, by the time the Lancaster appeared the company was part of the Hawker Siddeley Group, while Roe himself had moved on to form Saunders-Roe Ltd.

A. V. Roe&rsquos interest in aircraft developed before the First World War. His first design was the Roe I Biplane of 1907, which lacked a powerful enough engine to take off without assistance, until one was loaned in 1908. On 8 June 1908 Roe successfully took to the air, although only for a series of short hops.

A. V.&rsquos brother H. V. Roe was himself a successful businessman, and owner of Everard and Company of Brownsfield Mills, Manchester. On 1 January 1910, with financial assistance from H. V., A. V. Roe and Company was founded. The fledgling company was given engineering space at Brownsfield Mills. The first aircraft produced by the new company was the Roe II Triplane, one of a series of early designs that culminated in the Avro 500 biplane of 1912, considered by Roe to be his first truly successful design. A. V. Roe was responsible for a number of &ldquofirsts&rdquo, amongst them the Avro Type F of 1912, the first aircraft to fly with an entirely enclosed cockpit.

All of these early aircraft were produced in very small numbers, but the Avro 504 would change that, with 8,340 built over two decades. A tiny number of these aircraft saw front line service during the First World War with the R.F.C, while the R.N.A.S. used the Avro 504 during its famous raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Freidrichshafen on 21 November 1914. Despite this its main claim to fame, and the reason so many were built, was that the Avro 504 became the standard training aircraft for the young R.A.F.

The interwar years saw the arrival of Roy Chadwick, later famous as the designer of the Lancaster, and the departure of A. V. Roe. In 1928 he sold the company to J. D. Siddeley, and Avro became part of the Armstrong Siddeley Development Company and a sister-firm of Armstrong Whitworth. Siddeley followed suit in 1935 when he sold out to Hawker, and Avro became part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Group.

A large number of new designs were produced between the wars, with most produced in small numbers. The next major success was the Avro 621 Tutor, which replaced the Avro 605 in RAF service. This aircraft was designed in 1929, and remained in service throughout the Second World War.

The next major success for Avro was the Anson, of which over 11,000 were produced. Originally ordered as a coastal reconnaissance aircraft, the Anson was soon replaced in that role by the Lockheed Hudson, but went on to serve as a training aircraft.

The most famous of all Avro aircraft was the Lancaster. This was developed from the much less successful Avro Manchester, a very similar looking but twin engined aircraft, which was led down by the failure of the Rolls-Royce Vulture engine. The Lancaster saw the twin Vultures replaced by four much more reliable Merlin engines, producing one of the finest aircraft of the Second World War.

The design of the Lancaster was used as the basis for the Avro York transport aircraft, the Avro 691 Lancastrian passenger plane and the post-war Avro 694 Lincoln, originally designed for the Pacific war. The Lincoln was further modified to produce the Avro 696 Shackleton, a mainstay of Coastal Command after the war.

A dramatic change in design came with the Avro 698 Vulcan, the first large delta wing aircraft, and Avro&rsquos first military jet aircraft. Over the next decade the company produced a number of civil airlines, but the Avro name disappeared in July 1963 when the company became part of Hawker Siddeley Aviation.

Major Aircraft
Avro 504 trainer
Avro 549 Aldershot bomber, 1922-1926
Avro 555 Bison carrier reconnaissance and spotting aircraft, 1922-29
Avro 621 Tutor trainer, 1929-1936
Avro 636 Sea Tutor trainer, 1932
Avro 652 Anson maritime reconnaissance aircraft, 1933-1968
Avro 679 Manchester heavy bomber, 1939-1942
Avro 683 Lancaster heavy bomber, 1941-1960s
Avro 865 York transport, 1943-c.1960
Avro 694 Lincoln heavy bomber, 1945-55
Avro 696 Shackleton long range maritime reconnaissance, 1949-
Avro 698 Vulcan heavy bomber, 1952-

British Aircraft Manufacturers since 1908, Gunter Endres. A very useful reference book which provides brief histories of seventy five British aircraft manufacturers, ranging from famous names like Avro or Supermarine, to more obscure firms such as Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside. The publication date of 1995 means that this book covers the entire history of all but a handful of the main First and Second World War Companies.

Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on Equity (ROE) is the measure of a company&rsquos annual return ( net income Net Income Net Income is a key line item, not only in the income statement, but in all three core financial statements. While it is arrived at through ) divided by the value of its total shareholders&rsquo equity Stockholders Equity Stockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus , expressed as a percentage (e.g., 12%). Alternatively, ROE can also be derived by dividing the firm&rsquos dividend growth rate by its earnings retention rate (1 &ndash dividend payout ratio Dividend Payout Ratio Dividend Payout Ratio is the amount of dividends paid to shareholders in relation to the total amount of net income generated by a company. Formula, example ).

Return on Equity is a two-part ratio in its derivation because it brings together the income statement and the balance sheet Balance Sheet The balance sheet is one of the three fundamental financial statements. These statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting , where net income or profit is compared to the shareholders&rsquo equity. The number represents the total return on equity capital and shows the firm&rsquos ability to turn equity investments into profits. To put it another way, it measures the profits made for each dollar from shareholders&rsquo equity.

Return on Equity Formula

The following is the ROE equation:

ROE = Net Income / Shareholders&rsquo Equity

ROE provides a simple metric for evaluating investment returns. By comparing a company&rsquos ROE to the industry&rsquos average, something may be pinpointed about the company&rsquos competitive advantage Competitive Advantage A competitive advantage is an attribute that enables a company to outperform its competitors. It allows a company to achieve superior margins . ROE may also provide insight into how the company management is using financing from equity to grow the business.

A sustainable and increasing ROE over time can mean a company is good at generating shareholder value Shareholder Value Shareholder value is the financial worth owners of a business receive for owning shares in the company. An increase in shareholder value is created because it knows how to reinvest its earnings wisely, so as to increase productivity and profits. In contrast, a declining ROE can mean that management is making poor decisions on reinvesting capital in unproductive assets.

ROE Formula Drivers

While the simple return on equity formula is net income divided by shareholder&rsquos equity, we can break it down further into additional drivers. As you can see in the diagram below, the return on equity formula is also a function of a firm&rsquos return on assets (ROA) Return on Assets & ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. and the amount of financial leverage Financial Leverage Financial leverage refers to the amount of borrowed money used to purchase an asset with the expectation that the income from the new asset will exceed the cost of borrowing. it has. Both of these concepts will be discussed in more detail below.

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Return on Equity Template

Why is ROE Important?

With net income in the numerator, Return on Equity (ROE) looks at the firm&rsquos bottom line to gauge overall profitability for the firm&rsquos owners and investors. Stockholders are at the bottom of the pecking order of a firm&rsquos capital structure Capital Structure Capital structure refers to the amount of debt and/or equity employed by a firm to fund its operations and finance its assets. A firm's capital structure , and the income returned to them is a useful measure that represents excess profits that remain after paying mandatory obligations and reinvesting in the business.

Why Use the Return on Equity Metric?

Simply put, with ROE, investors can see if they&rsquore getting a good return on their money, while a company can evaluate how efficiently they&rsquore utilizing the firm&rsquos equity. ROE must be compared to the historical ROE of the company and to the industry&rsquos ROE average &ndash it means little if merely looked at in isolation. Other financial ratios Financial Ratios Financial ratios are created with the use of numerical values taken from financial statements to gain meaningful information about a company can be looked at to get a more complete and informed picture of the company for evaluation purposes.

In order to satisfy investors, a company should be able to generate a higher ROE than the return available from a lower risk investment.

Effect of Leverage

A high ROE could mean a company is more successful in generating profit internally. However, it doesn&rsquot fully show the risk associated with that return. A company may rely heavily on debt Long Term Debt Long Term Debt (LTD) is any amount of outstanding debt a company holds that has a maturity of 12 months or longer. It is classified as a non-current liability on the company&rsquos balance sheet. The time to maturity for LTD can range anywhere from 12 months to 30+ years and the types of debt can include bonds, mortgages to generate a higher net profit, thereby boosting the ROE higher.

As an example, if a company has $150,000 in equity and $850,000 in debt, then the total capital employed is $1,000,000. This is the same number of total assets employed. At 5%, it will cost $42,000 to service that debt, annually. If the company manages to increase its profits before interest to a 12% return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), a profitability ratio, measures how efficiently a company is using its capital to generate profits. The return on capital , the remaining profit after paying the interest is $78,000, which will increase equity by more than 50%, assuming the profit generated gets reinvested back. As we can see, the effect of debt is to magnify the return on equity.

The image below from CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Course shows how leverage increases equity returns.

Drawbacks of ROE

The return on equity ratio can also be skewed by share buybacks Dividend vs Share Buyback/Repurchase Shareholders invest in publicly traded companies for capital appreciation and income. There are two main ways in which a company returns profits to its shareholders &ndash Cash Dividends and Share Buybacks. The reasons behind the strategic decision on dividend vs share buyback differ from company to company . When management repurchases its shares from the marketplace, this reduces the number of outstanding shares Weighted Average Shares Outstanding Weighted average shares outstanding refers to the number of shares of a company calculated after adjusting for changes in the share capital over a reporting period. The number of weighted average shares outstanding is used in calculating metrics such as Earnings per Share (EPS) on a company's financial statements . Thus, ROE increases as the denominator shrinks.

Another weakness is that some ROE ratios may exclude intangible assets from shareholders&rsquo equity. Intangible assets Intangible Assets According to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance. Like all assets, intangible assets are non-monetary items such as goodwill Goodwill In accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset. The concept of goodwill comes into play when a company looking to acquire another company is , trademarks, copyrights, and patents. This can make calculations misleading and difficult to compare to other firms that have chosen to include intangible assets.

Finally, the ratio includes some variations on its composition, and there may be some disagreements between analysts. For example, the shareholders&rsquo equity can either be the beginning number, ending number, or the average of the two, while Net Income may be substituted for EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business&rsquo profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. Formula, examples and EBIT EBIT Guide EBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue. , and can be adjusted or not for non-recurring items Non-Recurring Item In accounting, a non-recurring item is an infrequent or abnormal gain or loss that is reported in the company&rsquos financial statements. .

How to Use Return on Equity

Some industries tend to achieve higher ROEs than others, and therefore, ROE is most useful when comparing companies within the same industry. Cyclical industries tend to generate higher ROEs than defensive industries, which is due to the different risk characteristics attributable to them. A riskier firm will have a higher cost of capital and a higher cost of equity.

Furthermore, it is useful to compare a firm&rsquos ROE to its cost of equity Cost of Equity Cost of Equity is the rate of return a shareholder requires for investing in a business. The rate of return required is based on the level of risk associated with the investment . A firm that has earned a return on equity higher than its cost of equity has added value. The stock of a firm with a 20% ROE will generally cost twice as much as one with a 10% ROE (all else being equal).

The DuPont Formula

The DuPont formula DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability breaks down ROE into three key components, all of which are helpful when thinking about a firm&rsquos profitability. ROE is equal to the product of a firm&rsquos net profit margin, asset turnover, and financial leverage:

/> DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability

If the net profit margin increases over time, then the firm is managing its operating and financial expenses well and the ROE should also increase over time. If the asset turnover increases, the firm is utilizing its assets efficiently, generating more sales per dollar of assets owned. Lastly, if the firm&rsquos financial leverage increases, the firm can deploy the debt capital to magnify returns. DuPont analysis is covered in detail in CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Fundamentals Course.

Video Explanation of Return on Equity

Below is a video explanation of the various drivers that contribute to a firm&rsquos return on equity. Learn how the formula works in this short tutorial, or check out the full Financial Analysis Course!

Caveats of Return on Equity

While debt financing can be used to boost ROE, it is important to keep in mind that overleveraging has a negative impact in the form of high interest payments and increased risk of default Debt Default A debt default happens when a borrower fails to pay his or her loan at the time it is due. The time a default happens varies, depending on the terms agreed upon by the creditor and the borrower. Some loans default after missing one payment, while others default only after three or more payments are missed. . The market may demand a higher cost of equity, putting pressure on the firm&rsquos valuation Valuation Principles The following are the key valuation principles that business owners who want to create value in their business must know. Business valuation involves the . While debt typically carries a lower cost than equity and offers the benefit of tax shields Tax Shield A Tax Shield is an allowable deduction from taxable income that results in a reduction of taxes owed. The value of these shields depends on the effective tax rate for the corporation or individual. Common expenses that are deductible include depreciation, amortization, mortgage payments and interest expense , the most value is created when a firm finds its optimal capital structure that balances the risks and rewards of financial leverage.

Furthermore, it is important to keep in mind that ROE is a ratio, and the firm can take actions such as asset write-downs Impairment The impairment of a fixed asset can be described as an abrupt decrease in fair value due to physical damage, changes in existing laws creating and share repurchases Share Repurchase A share repurchase refers to when the management of a public company decides to buy back company shares that were previously sold to the public. A company may decide to repurchase its sharesto send a market signal that its stock price is likely to increase, to inflate financial metrics denominated by the number of shares outstanding (e.g., earnings per share or EPS), or simply because it wants to increase its own equity stake in the company. to artificially boost ROE by decreasing total shareholders&rsquo equity (the denominator).

Additional resources

This has been CFI&rsquos guide to return on equity, the return on equity formula, and pro/cons of this financial metric. CFI is a provider of the Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)&trade designation Become a Certified Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® CFI's Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® certification will help you gain the confidence you need in your finance career. Enroll today! . To keep learning and expanding your financial analyst skills, see these additional valuable CFI resources:

  • Return on Assets (ROA) Return on Assets & ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets.
  • Guide to EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business&rsquo profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. Formula, examples
  • Cash Flow Guide Valuation Free valuation guides to learn the most important concepts at your own pace. These articles will teach you business valuation best practices and how to value a company using comparable company analysis, discounted cash flow (DCF) modeling, and precedent transactions, as used in investment banking, equity research,
  • Financial Modeling Best Practices Free Financial Modeling Guide This financial modeling guide covers Excel tips and best practices on assumptions, drivers, forecasting, linking the three statements, DCF analysis, more

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