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19 December 1943
German counterattack pushes Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front back 12 miles
19 December 1943 - History
First World War
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916
Allied Offensive: 1916
Allied Offensives: 1917
German Offensive: 1918
Advance to Victory: 1918
The Italian Campaign was one of the major campaigns Canadians fought during the Second World War. Canadian soldiers served in Italy from 10 July 1943 to the spring of 1945.
The Italian campaign included Canadian participation in several major periods of action
Sicily was the first campaign to which Canadians would contribute a division sized formation. The Allied operations on the island have been subjected to much criticism it took 38 days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 to seize the island, with the majority of the German forces on the island crossing to the mainland in safety. Nonetheless, the battle allowed for both men and commanders of the Canadian Army to gain battle experience, and by all accounts Canadian soldiers (of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and the 1st Canadian Army Tank Brigade) performed exceedingly well in the tasks allotted them. Politically, the battle brought an end to Italy's official alliance with Germany. Italian leader Benito Mussolini was deposed in late Jul. In early Sep, after the invasion of the Italian mainland, Italy quickly surrendered, prompting a German invasion of the country to continue the fight, with a fascist puppet state established in the north.
2016 Fifth Harmony announce that Camila Cabello has left the group. They soldier on as a quartet but keep the name Cabello does pretty well on her own, landing a #1 with "Havana" in 2018.
2014 Larry Henley (lead singer of the '60s pop group The Newbeats) dies at age 77 after suffering with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Co-wrote the 1989 hit "The Wind Beneath My Wings."
2012 Songwriter Earl Shuman files a copyright infringement lawsuit against singer Alicia Keys, claiming her Top 20 single "Girl On Fire" sounds too much like Shuman's 1970 song "Lonely Boy," which ended up being recorded by Eddie Holman as "Hey There Lonely Girl." The suit is kind of vague on the details, but apparently it comes down to a few notes Keys and Shuman later settle.
2011 One Direction play their first show, performing at Watford Colosseum in London. It does not go well. "We were just a joke," Niall Horan says.
2011 Ralph MacDonald, a percussionist and songwriter who composed the hit duets "Where Is the Love" (Roberta Flack/Donny Hathaway) and "Just The Two Of Us" (Bill Withers/Grover Washington Jr.), dies of lung cancer at age 67.
2004 T.I. is arrested on gun possession charges for the third time in three years. Authorities search his home and find a silencer-enhanced weapon, several rounds of ammunition, and photos of the rapper handling guns. He is placed under house arrest after posting a $3 million bond.
2001 Billie Eilish is born in Los Angeles. Working with her brother, Finneas, she composes her Grammy-winning debut album, When We All Fall Asleep, Where Do We Go?, which is released in 2019 when she's 17.
2000 British singer Kirsty MacColl, daughter of Ewan MacColl, is killed by a boat propeller while scuba diving in Cozumel, Mexico at age 41.
1980 Paul McCartney releases McCartney III. He's a one-man band on the album, playing all the instruments and writing all the songs, which he also did on the prequels, McCartney in 1970 and McCartney II in 1980.
1972 DJ Lethal (of Limp Bizkit, House of Pain) is born Leor Dimant in Riga, Latvia, and eventually settles in New York.
1972 Shooting begins for Bob Dylan's part in Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid.
1972 The Ringo Starr-directed T. Rex documentary, Born to Boogie, premieres at Oscar's Cinema in Brewer Street, Soho (UK). In attendance are Starr, the members of T. Rex, and Elton John.
1970 Rapper DMX is born Earl Simmons in Mount Vernon, New York. He takes his stage name from the Oberheim DMX drum machine, an instrument he used as a teen.
1970 Segregationist Georgia governor Lester Maddox walks off The Dick Cavett Show when the host implies his supporters are bigots. Randy Newman writes a song about it, "Rednecks," which begins: Last night I saw Lester Maddox on a TV show
1965 Staff Sergeant Barry Sadler records "The Ballad Of The Green Berets."
Victorian Christmas - History of Christmas
Christmas as we celebrate it today has its origins in Victorian Britain.
It's hard to imagine now, but at the beginning of the 19th century Christmas was hardly celebrated. Many businesses did not even consider it a holiday. However by the end of the century it had become the biggest annual celebration and took on the form that we recognise today.
The transformation happened quickly, and came from all sectors of society.
Victoria and Albert gathered around the Christmas tree with their children.
Many attribute the change to Queen Victoria, and it was her marriage to the German-born Prince Albert that introduced some of the most prominent aspects of Christmas. In 1848 the Illustrated London News published a drawing of the royal family celebrating around a decorated Christmas tree, a tradition that was reminiscent of Prince Albert's childhood in Germany. Soon every home in Britain had a tree bedecked with candles, sweets, fruit, homemade decorations and small gifts.
In 1843 Henry Cole commissioned an artist to design a card for Christmas. The illustration showed a group of people around a dinner table and a Christmas message. At one shilling each, these were pricey for ordinary Victorians and so were not immediately accessible. However the sentiment caught on and many children - Queen Victoria's included – were encouraged to make their own Christmas cards. In this age of industrialisation colour printing technology quickly became more advanced, causing the price of card production to drop significantly. Together with the introduction of the halfpenny postage rate, the Christmas card industry took off. By the 1880s the sending of cards had become hugely popular, creating a lucrative industry that produced 11.5 million cards in 1880 alone. The commercialisation of Christmas was well on its way.
Traditional Victorian crackers
Another commercial Christmas industry was borne by Victorians in 1848 when a British confectioner, Tom Smith, invented a bold new way to sell sweets. Inspired by a trip to Paris where he saw bon bons – sugared almonds wrapped in twists of paper – he came up with the idea of the Christmas cracker: a simple package filled with sweets that snapped when pulled apart. The sweets were replaced by small gifts and paper hats in the late Victorian period, and remain in this form as an essential part of a modern Christmas.
Decorating the home at Christmas also became a more elaborate affair. The medieval tradition of using evergreens continued, however the style and placement of these decorations became more important. The old custom of simply decking walls and windows with sprigs and twigs was sniffed at. Uniformity, order and elegance were encouraged. There were instructions on how to make elaborate synthetic decorations for those residing in towns. In 1881 Cassell's Family Magazine gave strict directions to the lady of the house: "To bring about a general feeling of enjoyment, much depends on the surroundings… It is worth while to bestow some little trouble on the decoration of the rooms".
Gift giving had traditionally been at New Year but moved as Christmas became more important to the Victorians. Initially gifts were rather modest – fruit, nuts, sweets and small handmade trinkets. These were usually hung on the Christmas tree. However, as gift giving became more central to the festival, and the gifts became bigger and shop-bought, they moved under the tree.
The Christmas feast has its roots from before the Middle Ages, but it's during the Victorian period that the dinner we now associate with Christmas began to take shape. Examination of early Victorian recipes shows that mince pies were initially made from meat, a tradition dating back to Tudor times. However, during the 19th century there was a revolution in the composition of this festive dish. Mixes without meat began to gain popularity within some of the higher echelons of society and became the mince pies we know today.
The roast turkey also has its beginnings in Victorian Britain. Previously other forms of roasted meat such as beef and goose were the centrepiece of the Christmas dinner. The turkey was added to this by the more wealthy sections of the community in the 19th century, but its perfect size for a middle class family gathering meant it became the dominant dish by the beginning of the 20th century.
While carols were not new to the Victorians, it was a tradition that they actively revived and popularised. The Victorians considered carols to be a delightful form of musical entertainment, and a pleasure well worth cultivating. Old words were put to new tunes and the first significant collection of carols was published in 1833 for all to enjoy.
The Victorians also transformed the idea of Christmas so that it became centred around the family. The preparation and eating of the feast, decorations and gift giving, entertainments and parlour games - all were essential to the celebration of the festival and were to be shared by the whole family.
While Charles Dickens did not invent the Victorian Christmas, his book A Christmas Carol is credited with helping to popularise and spread the traditions of the festival. Its themes of family, charity, goodwill, peace and happiness encapsulate the spirit of the Victorian Christmas, and are very much a part of the Christmas we celebrate today.
In an atmosphere of World War II hysteria, President Roosevelt, encouraged by officials at all levels of the federal government, authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona. The order also authorized transporting these citizens to assembly centers hastily set up and governed by the military in California, Arizona, Washington state, and Oregon. Although it is not well known, the same executive order (and other war-time orders and restrictions) were also applied to smaller numbers of residents of the United States who were of Italian or German descent. For example, 3,200 resident aliens of Italian background were arrested and more than 300 of them were interned. About 11,000 German residents—including some naturalized citizens—were arrested and more than 5000 were interned. Yet while these individuals (and others from those groups) suffered grievous violations of their civil liberties, the war-time measures applied to Japanese Americans were worse and more sweeping, uprooting entire communities and targeting citizens as well as resident aliens.
Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas
Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104)
Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.
I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area hereinabove authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies, with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies.
I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments, independent establishments and other Federal Agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order, including the furnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of land, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities, and services.
This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. 8972, dated December 12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder.
Lucky Things for Horses:
Compared to other zodiac signs, people with Chinese zodiac Horse sign are more lively, energetic, courageous, and enthusiastic about people and life. However, they are not good at hiding emotions and their feelings will be easily shown on the face. But that doesn&rsquot affect their great popularity among people, and no wonder that most of them are fond of joining social activities.
- Strengths: Inspired, cheerful, talented, perceptive, intelligent and popular in social circle
- Weaknesses: Overly ambitious, overconfident, and sometimes too sophisticated
- Horse Men: The lively Horse men always leave an impression on people that they are full of energy. What&rsquos more, they are decisive and seldom hesitate, which makes them gain a lot of opportunities. With a strong sense of justice, the Horse men cannot tolerate sin and are glad to offer help to the weak. However, they spend money lavishly and like to pay bills for friends.
- Horse Women: Horse women are outstanding among people not only because they have a nice figure but also due to the stylish and fashionable dress code. They have their own lifestyles and are experts in managing time. As a result, they can well balance their career and family. Also, they are nature lovers who enjoy going outside.
- Personality by Five Elements: Which Type of 'Horse' Are You?
People born in the different Years of the Horse can show different personalities according to the Five Elements: Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water. Your element will be decided by the years of birth and check the following chart to learn your type and traits.
|Types||Years of Birth||Personality Traits|
|Wood Horse||1906, 1966||Imaginative, observant, perceptive, born leader and decision-maker.|
|Fire Horse||1918, 1978||Intelligent, passionate, energetic sensitive to dressing and fashion.|
|Earth Horse||1930, 1990||Optimistic, with a strong sense of justice, a typical doer.|
|Metal Horse||1910, 1970||Frank by nature, sparing no effort to help friends, having a quick tongue.|
|Water Horse||1942, 2002||Considerate, self-sacrificing, and ambitious at work.|
- Horse&rsquos Personality by Blood Types
&bull Blood Type O: The Horses with blood type O are born optimists who love to make friends and lead a lively life. However, out of fear of facing challenges and pressure, they are casual about the future and don&rsquot have clear plans or goals in life.
&bull Blood Type A: They are active, confident, and sometimes can be very straightforward. At work, they are practical and high-efficient. If meeting someone who cannot keep pace with them, they may become impatient.
&bull Blood Type B: These people are lively, responsive, and full of passion for life. They are hopeful about the future and see the positive sides of things more often. In addition, the female Horses are genuine pioneers in fashion.
&bull Blood Type AB: With a sophisticated character, they can get along well with a majority of people, and rarely disliked by others. They are not wordy but can deliver very practical information in a few words. Though being wise and intelligent, they don&rsquot like to show off.
- Best Matches: Tiger, Sheep, Rabbit
The Horse sometimes can be very stubborn but they can take the Tiger&rsquos advice and they can make a lovely pair. Due to the lively character of the Horse, it is hard for them to get along with irritable people, so they can build a harmonious relationship with the good-tempered Sheep. For the Horse, the Rabbit is both a friend and a partner.
- Bad Matches: Rat, Ox, Rooster, Horse
The Horse loves freedom and yearns for the outside world while the Rat is family-oriented, and thus the different values will lead to a lot of disagreements. It is also hard for the Horse to compromise when they are with the Ox, Rooster, and the Horse, which makes it difficult for them to become good partners of each other.
The Horses don&rsquot like boring life and their lives are full of zest. So they will only be attracted by innovative and interesting people. When getting along with the Horses, creating a romantic atmosphere from time to time is very essential, and some sweet love words will also be very helpful to enhance the relationship. However, a taboo for the Horse in a relationship is the lie. Try to keep genuine as the Horse really hate lies, even the white ones.
- Best Jobs: Adventurers, writers, architects, businessmen, performers, entrepreneurs, scientists, artists, politicians, critics, tour guides.
Overall, most of the Horses are in good health condition. They are energetic, bouncy and dynamic when they are young. However, the long term exciting but unhealthy lifestyle may bring some potential health risks. For example, the habit of staying up late can weaken the immune system and the irregular diets may also cause gastrointestinal illnesses.
The Horses should care more about their health now. For the young Horses, keep a regular and balanced diet and reject some night parties, which will be good ways to maintain health. For the middle-aged Horses, learn to escape from the heavy work. Make some time to exercise and rest properly.
19 December 1943 - History
WOMEN'S RIGHTS . Throughout most of history women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men. Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women's most significant professions. In the 20th century, however, women in most nations won the right to vote and increased their educational and job opportunities. Perhaps most important, they fought for and to a large degree accomplished a reevaluation of traditional views of their role in society.
Early Attitudes Toward Women
Since early times women have been uniquely viewed as a creative source of human life. Historically, however, they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil. In Greek mythology, for example, it was a woman, Pandora, who opened the forbidden box and brought plagues and unhappiness to mankind. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men.
Early Christian theology perpetuated these views. St. Jerome, a 4th-century Latin father of the Christian church, said: "Woman is the gate of the devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in a word a perilous object." Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century Christian theologian, said that woman was "created to be man's helpmeet, but her unique role is in conception . . . since for other purposes men would be better assisted by other men."
The attitude toward women in the East was at first more favorable. In ancient India, for example, women were not deprived of property rights or individual freedoms by marriage. But Hinduism, which evolved in India after about 500 BC, required obedience of women toward men. Women had to walk behind their husbands. Women could not own property, and widows could not remarry. In both East and West, male children were preferred over female children.
Nevertheless, when they were allowed personal and intellectual freedom, women made significant achievements. During the Middle Ages nuns played a key role in the religious life of Europe. Aristocratic women enjoyed power and prestige. Whole eras were influenced by women rulers for instance, Queen Elizabeth of England in the 16th century, Catherine the Great of Russia in the 18th century, and Queen Victoria of England in the 19th century.
The Weaker Sex?
Women were long considered naturally weaker than men, squeamish, and unable to perform work requiring muscular or intellectual development. In most preindustrial societies, for example, domestic chores were relegated to women, leaving "heavier" labor such as hunting and plowing to men. This ignored the fact that caring for children and doing such tasks as milking cows and washing clothes also required heavy, sustained labor. But physiological tests now suggest that women have a greater tolerance for pain, and statistics reveal that women live longer and are more resistant to many diseases.
Maternity, the natural biological role of women, has traditionally been regarded as their major social role as well. The resulting stereotype that "a woman's place is in the home" has largely determined the ways in which women have expressed themselves. Today, contraception and, in some areas, legalized abortion have given women greater control over the number of children they will bear. Although these developments have freed women for roles other than motherhood, the cultural pressure for women to become wives and mothers still prevents many talented women from finishing college or pursuing careers.
Traditionally a middle-class girl in Western culture tended to learn from her mother's example that cooking, cleaning, and caring for children was the behavior expected of her when she grew up. Tests made in the 1960s showed that the scholastic achievement of girls was higher in the early grades than in high school. The major reason given was that the girls' own expectations declined because neither their families nor their teachers expected them to prepare for a future other than that of marriage and motherhood. This trend has been changing in recent decades.
Formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. By the end of the 19th century, however, the number of women students had increased greatly. Higher education particularly was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college and university students were women. By 1900 the proportion had increased to more than one third.
Women obtained 19 percent of all undergraduate college degrees around the beginning of the 20th century. By 1984 the figure had sharply increased to 49 percent. Women also increased their numbers in graduate study. By the mid-1980s women were earning 49 percent of all master's degrees and about 33 percent of all doctoral degrees. In 1985 about 53 percent of all college students were women, more than one quarter of whom were above age 29.
The Legal Status of Women
The myth of the natural inferiority of women greatly influenced the status of women in law. Under the common law of England, an unmarried woman could own property, make a contract, or sue and be sued. But a married woman, defined as being one with her husband, gave up her name, and virtually all her property came under her husband's control.
During the early history of the United States, a man virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object. Some communities, however, modified the common law to allow women to act as lawyers in the courts, to sue for property, and to own property in their own names if their husbands agreed.
Equity law, which developed in England, emphasized the principle of equal rights rather than tradition. Equity law had a liberalizing effect upon the legal rights of women in the United States. For instance, a woman could sue her husband. Mississippi in 1839, followed by New York in 1848 and Massachusetts in 1854, passed laws allowing married women to own property separate from their husbands. In divorce law, however, generally the divorced husband kept legal control of both children and property.
In the 19th century, women began working outside their homes in large numbers, notably in textile mills and garment shops. In poorly ventilated, crowded rooms women (and children) worked for as long as 12 hours a day. Great Britain passed a ten-hour-day law for women and children in 1847, but in the United States it was not until the 1910s that the states began to pass legislation limiting working hours and improving working conditions of women and children.
Eventually, however, some of these labor laws were seen as restricting the rights of working women. For instance, laws prohibiting women from working more than an eight-hour day or from working at night effectively prevented women from holding many jobs, particularly supervisory positions, that might require overtime work. Laws in some states prohibited women from lifting weights above a certain amount varying from as little as 15 pounds (7 kilograms) again barring women from many jobs.
During the 1960s several federal laws improving the economic status of women were passed. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required equal wages for men and women doing equal work. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against women by any company with 25 or more employees. A Presidential Executive Order in 1967 prohibited bias against women in hiring by federal government contractors.
But discrimination in other fields persisted. Many retail stores would not issue independent credit cards to married women. Divorced or single women often found it difficult to obtain credit to purchase a house or a car. Laws concerned with welfare, crime, prostitution, and abortion also displayed a bias against women. In possible violation of a woman's right to privacy, for example, a mother receiving government welfare payments was subject to frequent investigations in order to verify her welfare claim. Sex discrimination in the definition of crimes existed in some areas of the United States. A woman who shot and killed her husband would be accused of homicide, but the shooting of a wife by her husband could be termed a "passion shooting." Only in 1968, for another example, did the Pennsylvania courts void a state law which required that any woman convicted of a felony be sentenced to the maximum punishment prescribed by law. Often women prostitutes were prosecuted although their male customers were allowed to go free. In most states abortion was legal only if the mother's life was judged to be physically endangered. In 1973, however, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict a woman's right to an abortion in her first three months of pregnancy.
Until well into the 20th century, women in Western European countries lived under many of the same legal disabilities as women in the United States. For example, until 1935, married women in England did not have the full right to own property and to enter into contracts on a par with unmarried women. Only after 1920 was legislation passed to provide working women with employment opportunities and pay equal to men. Not until the early 1960s was a law passed that equalized pay scales for men and women in the British civil service.
Women at Work
In colonial America, women who earned their own living usually became seamstresses or kept boardinghouses. But some women worked in professions and jobs available mostly to men. There were women doctors, lawyers, preachers, teachers, writers, and singers. By the early 19th century, however, acceptable occupations for working women were limited to factory labor or domestic work. Women were excluded from the professions, except for writing and teaching.
The medical profession is an example of changed attitudes in the 19th and 20th centuries about what was regarded as suitable work for women. Prior to the 1800s there were almost no medical schools, and virtually any enterprising person could practice medicine. Indeed, obstetrics was the domain of women.
Beginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased. This tended to prevent many young women, who married early and bore many children, from entering professional careers. Although home nursing was considered a proper female occupation, nursing in hospitals was done almost exclusively by men. Specific discrimination against women also began to appear. For example, the American Medical Association, founded in 1846, barred women from membership. Barred also from attending "men's" medical colleges, women enrolled in their own for instance, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, which was established in 1850. By the 1910s, however, women were attending many leading medical schools, and in 1915 the American Medical Association began to admit women members.
In 1890, women constituted about 5 percent of the total doctors in the United States. During the 1980s the proportion was about 17 percent. At the same time the percentage of women doctors was about 19 percent in West Germany and 20 percent in France. In Israel, however, about 32 percent of the total number of doctors and dentists were women.
Women also had not greatly improved their status in other professions. In 1930 about 2 percent of all American lawyers and judges were women in 1989, about 22 percent. In 1930 there were almost no women engineers in the United States. In 1989 the proportion of women engineers was only 7.5 percent.
In contrast, the teaching profession was a large field of employment for women. In the late 1980s more than twice as many women as men taught in elementary and high schools. In higher education, however, women held only about one third of the teaching positions, concentrated in such fields as education, social service, home economics, nursing, and library science. A small proportion of women college and university teachers were in the physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and law.
The great majority of women who work are still employed in clerical positions, factory work, retail sales, and service jobs. Secretaries, bookkeepers, and typists account for a large portion of women clerical workers. Women in factories often work as machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. Many women in service jobs work as waitresses, cooks, hospital attendants, cleaning women, and hairdressers.
During wartime women have served in the armed forces. In the United States during World War II almost 300,000 women served in the Army and Navy, performing such noncombatant jobs as secretaries, typists, and nurses. Many European women fought in the underground resistance movements during World War II. In Israel women are drafted into the armed forces along with men and receive combat training.
Women constituted more than 45 percent of employed persons in the United States in 1989, but they had only a small share of the decision-making jobs. Although the number of women working as managers, officials, and other administrators has been increasing, in 1989 they were outnumbered about 1.5 to 1 by men. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues. Many cases before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1970 were registered by women charging sex discrimination in jobs.
Working women often faced discrimination on the mistaken belief that, because they were married or would most likely get married, they would not be permanent workers. But married women generally continued on their jobs for many years and were not a transient, temporary, or undependable work force. From 1960 to the early 1970s the influx of married women workers accounted for almost half of the increase in the total labor force, and working wives were staying on their jobs longer before starting families. The number of elderly working also increased markedly.
Since 1960 more and more women with children have been in the work force. This change is especially dramatic for married women with children under age 6: 12 percent worked in 1950, 45 percent in 1980, and 57 percent in 1987. Just over half the mothers with children under age 3 were in the labor force in 1987. Black women with children are more likely to work than are white or Hispanic women who have children. Over half of all black families with children are maintained by the mother only, compared with 18 percent of white families with children.
Despite their increased presence in the work force, most women still have primary responsibility for housework and family care. In the late 1970s men with an employed wife spent only about 1.4 hours a week more on household tasks than those whose wife was a full-time homemaker.
A crucial issue for many women is maternity leave, or time off from their jobs after giving birth. By federal law a full-time worker is entitled to time off and a job when she returns, but few states by the early 1990s required that the leave be paid. Many countries, including Mexico, India, Germany, Brazil, and Australia require companies to grant 12-week maternity leaves at full pay.
Women in Politics
American women have had the right to vote since 1920, but their political roles have been minimal. Not until 1984 did a major party choose a woman Geraldine Ferraro of New York to run for vice-president (see Ferraro).
Jeanette Rankin of Montana, elected in 1917, was the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. In 1968 Shirley Chisholm of New York was the first black woman elected to the House of Representatives (see Chisholm). Hattie Caraway of Arkansas first appointed in 1932 was, in 1933, the first woman elected to the United States Senate. Senator Margaret Chase Smith served Maine for 24 years (1949-73). Others were Maurine Neuberger of Oregon, Nancy Landon Kassebaum of Kansas, Paula Hawkins of Florida, and Barbara Mikulski of Maryland.
Wives of former governors became the first women governors Miriam A. Ferguson of Texas (1925-27 and 1933-35) and Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming (1925-27) (see Ross, Nellie Tayloe). In 1974 Ella T. Grasso of Connecticut won a governorship on her own merits.
In 1971 Patience Sewell Latting was elected mayor of Oklahoma City, at that time the largest city in the nation with a woman mayor. By 1979 two major cities were headed by women: Chicago, by Jane Byrne, and San Francisco, by Dianne Feinstein. Sharon Pratt Dixon was elected mayor of Washington, D.C., in 1990.
Frances Perkins was the first woman Cabinet member as secretary of labor under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Oveta Culp Hobby was secretary of health, education, and welfare in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Cabinet. Carla A. Hills was secretary of housing and urban development in Gerald R. Ford's Cabinet. Jimmy Carter chose two women for his original Cabinet Juanita M. Kreps as secretary of commerce and Patricia Roberts Harris as secretary of housing and urban development. Harris was the first African American woman in a presidential Cabinet. When the separate Department of Education was created, Carter named Shirley Mount Hufstedler to head it. Ronald Reagan's Cabinet included Margaret Heckler, secretary of health and human services, and Elizabeth Dole, secretary of transportation. Under George Bush, Dole became secretary of labor she was succeeded by Representative Lynn Martin. Bush chose Antonia Novello, a Hispanic, for surgeon general in 1990.
Reagan set a precedent with his appointment in 1981 of Sandra Day O'Connor as the first woman on the United States Supreme Court (see O'Connor). The next year Bertha Wilson was named to the Canadian Supreme Court. In 1984 Jeanne Sauve became Canada's first female governor-general (see Sauve).
In international affairs, Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed to the United Nations in 1945 and served as chairman of its Commission on Human Rights (see Roosevelt, Eleanor). Eugenie Anderson was sent to Denmark in 1949 as the first woman ambassador from the United States. Jeane Kirkpatrick was named ambassador to the United Nations in 1981.
Three women held their countries' highest elective offices by 1970. Sirimavo Bandaranaike was prime minister of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from 1960 to 1965 and from 1970 to 1977 (see Bandaranaike). Indira Gandhi was prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 until her assassination in 1984 (see Gandhi, Indira). Golda Meir was prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974 (see Meir). The first woman head of state in the Americas was Juan Peron's widow, Isabel, president of Argentina in 1974-76 (see Peron). Elisabeth Domitien was premier of the Central African Republic in 1975-76. Margaret Thatcher, who first became prime minister of Great Britain in 1979, was the only person in the 20th century to be reelected to that office for a third consecutive term (see Thatcher). Also in 1979, Simone Weil of France became the first president of the European Parliament.
In the early 1980s Vigdis Finnbogadottir was elected president of Iceland Gro Harlem Brundtland, prime minister of Norway and Milka Planinc, premier of Yugoslavia. In 1986 Corazon Aquino became president of the Philippines (see Aquino). From 1988 to 1990 Benazir Bhutto was prime minister of Pakistan the first woman to head a Muslim nation (see Bhutto).
In 1990 Mary Robinson was elected president of Ireland and Violeta Chamorro, of Nicaragua. Australia's first female premier was Carmen Lawrence of Western Australia (1990), and Canada's was Rita Johnston of British Columbia (1991). In 1991 Khaleda Zia became the prime minister of Bangladesh and Socialist Edith Cresson was named France's first female premier. Poland's first female prime minister, Hanna Suchocka, was elected in 1992.
At the end of the 18th century, individual liberty was being hotly debated. In 1789, during the French Revolution, Olympe de Gouges published a 'Declaration of the Rights of Woman' to protest the revolutionists' failure to mention women in their 'Declaration of the Rights of Man'. In 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women' (1792) Mary Wollstonecraft called for enlightenment of the female mind.
Margaret Fuller, one of the earliest female reporters, wrote 'Woman in the Nineteenth Century' in 1845. She argued that individuals had unlimited capacities and that when people's roles were defined according to their sex, human development was severely limited.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a leading theoretician of the women's rights movement. Her 'Woman's Bible', published in parts in 1895 and 1898, attacked what she called the male bias of the Bible. Contrary to most of her religious female colleagues, she believed further that organized religion would have to be abolished before true emancipation for women could be achieved. (See also Stanton, Elizabeth Cady.)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman characterized the home as inefficient compared with the mass-production techniques of the modern factory. She contended, in books like 'Women and Economics' (1898), that women should share the tasks of homemaking, with the women best suited to cook, to clean, and to care for young children doing each respective task.
Politically, many feminists believed that a cooperative society based on socialist economic principles would respect the rights of women. The Socialist Labor party, in 1892, was one of the first national political parties in the United States to include woman suffrage as a plank in its platform.
During the early 20th century the term new woman came to be used in the popular press. More young women than ever were going to school, working both in blue- and white-collar jobs, and living by themselves in city apartments. Some social critics feared that feminism, which they interpreted to mean the end of the home and family, was triumphing. Actually, the customary habits of American women were changing little. Although young people dated more than their parents did and used the automobile to escape parental supervision, most young women still married and became the traditional housewives and mothers.
Women in Reform Movements
Women in the United States during the 19th century organized and participated in a great variety of reform movements to improve education, to initiate prison reform, to ban alcoholic drinks, and, during the pre-Civil War period, to free the slaves.
At a time when it was not considered respectable for women to speak before mixed audiences of men and women, the abolitionist sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimke of South Carolina boldly spoke out against slavery at public meetings (see Grimke Sisters). Some male abolitionists including William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Frederick Douglass supported the right of women to speak and participate equally with men in antislavery activities. In one instance, women delegates to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention held in London in 1840 were denied their places. Garrison thereupon refused his own seat and joined the women in the balcony as a spectator.
Some women saw parallels between the position of women and that of the slaves. In their view, both were expected to be passive, cooperative, and obedient to their master-husbands. Women such as Stanton, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth were feminists and abolitionists, believing in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks. (See also individual biographies.)
Many women supported the temperance movement in the belief that drunken husbands pulled their families into poverty. In 1872 the Prohibition party became the first national political party to recognize the right of suffrage for women in its platform. Frances Willard helped found the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (see Willard, Frances).
During the mid-1800s Dorothea Dix was a leader in the movements for prison reform and for providing mental-hospital care for the needy. The settlement-house movement was inspired by Jane Addams, who founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889, and by Lillian Wald, who founded the Henry Street Settlement House in New York City in 1895. Both women helped immigrants adjust to city life. (See also Addams Dix.)
Women were also active in movements for agrarian and labor reforms and for birth control. Mary Elizabeth Lease, a leading Populist spokeswoman in the 1880s and 1890s in Kansas, immortalized the cry, "What the farmers need to do is raise less corn and more hell." Margaret Robins led the National Women's Trade Union League in the early 1900s. In the 1910s Margaret Sanger crusaded to have birth-control information available for all women (see Sanger).
Fighting for the Vote
The first women's rights convention took place in Seneca Falls, N.Y., in July 1848. The declaration that emerged was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, it claimed that "all men and women are created equal" and that "the history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman." Following a long list of grievances were resolutions for equitable laws, equal educational and job opportunities, and the right to vote.
With the Union victory in the Civil War, women abolitionists hoped their hard work would result in suffrage for women as well as for blacks. But the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, adopted in 1868 and 1870 respectively, granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.
Disagreement over the next steps to take led to a split in the women's rights movement in 1869. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, a temperance and antislavery advocate, formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) in New York. Lucy Stone organized the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in Boston. The NWSA agitated for a woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, while the AWSA worked for suffrage amendments to each state constitution. Eventually, in 1890, the two groups united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Lucy Stone became chairman of the executive committee and Elizabeth Cady Stanton served as the first president. Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw served as later presidents.
The struggle to win the vote was slow and frustrating. Wyoming Territory in 1869, Utah Territory in 1870, and the states of Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896 granted women the vote but the Eastern states resisted. A woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, presented to every Congress since 1878, repeatedly failed to pass.
Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc.
Discover free online learning resources on Australia's Defining Moments Digital Classroom.
Suggest a moment
I would like to see the election of the Gough Whitlam government as a defining moment.
Thanks. The election of the Whitlam government has been on our site for a while: https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/whitlam-election
COVID-19 response and 2019-2020 bushfires across Australia
Thanks, we are working on adding moments for both. Meantime, you might be interested in our Momentous website: https://momentous.nma.gov.au/
19 October 2001: SIEV X asylum seeker boat sinks in Australia's aerial border protection zone, 353 people drowned. There is a memorial to these people in Weston Park, not far from the Museum.
The first COVID-19 vaccinations in Australia
The demise of the local car manufacturing industry should be on the timeline, since the first Holden is there
Yes, the end of this era is mentioned at the end of our Holden launch moment: https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/holden-launch
Can you tell me about the first prime minister
See our Defining Moment on Federation in 1901. You can also learn more about Edmund Barton on our Prime Ministers of Australia website: https://www.nma.gov.au/explore/features/prime-ministers/edmund-barton
Formation of TISM and subsequently the end of TISM
Thanks for your suggestion Ollie. TISM has some great songs but if we chose one band we’d have to do many. We're after a defining moment when a person or band is responsible for a significant change.
2000 Olympic Games Sydney
How about adding some moments in history from the past 10 years to the defining moments wall.
Surely AFLW, marriage equality , stopping people climbing Uluru.
Thanks for your great suggestions Elle. Our Defining Moments Discovery Wall is only a selection of the moments that we have on our Defining Moments website. There you’ll find full feature moments on two of your suggestions — marriage equality and women’s AFL. We will soon be publishing a full feature moment on the handback of Uluru, as well as the closure of the climb. Some of these more recent defining moments will also be added to the Discovery Wall soon, as we know our visitors are interested in them. Thanks for being involved in our Defining Moments program.
Early aboriginal history maybe through archaeological finds across Australia
Thank you for your suggestion Sabrina. We have recently published a Defining Moment on First Rock Art, which can be viewed on our timeline.
Cathy freeman winning Gold at Sydney Olympics.
Hi Shelley, thank you for this great suggestion. This moment has already been suggested and is on our timeline.
I believe we should have Sam the Koala as a moment in Australia as it tells the tale of the koala who drank from a water bottle and was taken to Southern Ash Wildlife Shelter in the 2009 Bushfires
Hi Sam, we have already written a feature moment on the 2009 Bushfires. However we think this is a great idea and are working on adding a photo of Sam the Koala to the 2009 bushfire moment.
28th Jun 2019 15:41undefined
Proposal for a new Australian Defining Moment:
Can a small group change a nation (and the world) through a clear, passionate, well-researched message?
Small Melbourne based protest group wins a nobel peace prize for calling to attention weapons against humanity https://www.armscontrol.org/act/2017-11/news/ican-wins-nobel-peace-prize
Despite being a small group, stripped of funding, and essentially challenging the Australian government and world’s super powers in their love of weapons which do not differentiate between soldiers or civilians, ICAN’s message prevailed!
Why does the world need cluster bombs? Or nuclear weapons?
This Defining Moment would have direct links to the current NMA Defining Moment https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/maralinga
Come-on NMA! The public and primary and secondary educators across the country need and want to recognise the power of active citizenship, pressure groups, and have quality resources for Civics and Citizenship units in the Australian Curriculum.
Also, some of us have seen and heard the inspiring Former Federal MP and UN lawyer Melissa Parke speak at History Teachers' Conferences and about a small Melbourne group challenging and changing the world and 'Australia’s role leading the world to get rid of nuclear weapons and weapons that harm civilians is critically important’ (hear! hear!).
Hi Mat, thanks for your suggestion. This moment has been suggested previously and can be viewed on our timeline.
20th Jun 2019 10:48undefined
Nicky Winmar mid 90s lifting his jumper and pointing to his skin mid AFL game - indigenous Australian
Thanks for your suggestion Andrew. Nicky Winmar’s stand is already a moment and on our timeline.
8th Jun 2019 11:08undefined
The burning of gold licences and the anti Chinese party is not included in the defining moments wall
Thanks for the suggestion, Abigail. The riots at Lambing flat are a defining moment on our timeline. We also have a few lines covering this in the Gold Rushes feature moment.
27th May 2019 14:39undefined
hello, this helped my son, benny and my daughter, mia
she finally understood the ending of the phar lap mystery book.
from archie ( not the one from riverdale) thanks
27th May 2019 14:38undefined
thank you! it worked wonderfuly for my kid, liah.
Percy Trezise and Dick Roughsey's friendship and bond resulting in them winning the Order of Australia and the Order of the British Empire as they created and left a legacy of more than 30 childrens books about indigenous history and culture published in every state and territory in Australia, and worldwide.
Dick Roughsey was awarded the Order of the British Empire, as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, for Service to Aboriginal Art and Culture in 1978.
Percy Trezise AM (1923 - 2005) was a painter and writer as well as an historian and documenter of Aboriginal rock art. Trezise served in the RAAF during WW2, and from 1956 he worked in northern Australia as an airline pilot. From the air he would gauge areas likely to contain Aboriginal rock art that he would later explore. Trezise collaborated on a series of children’s books with Aboriginal artist Dick Roughsey, and as well as being a member of the Order of Australia, in 2004 he received an Honorary Doctorate from James Cook University.
Roughsey's passion for the preservation of Indigenous culture and traditions presented him with the opportunity to be appointed to the Aboriginal Advisory Committee for the Australia Council in 1970. In 1971 he wrote the first autobiography by an Aboriginal author. In 1973 Roughsey became the Chair of the Aboriginal Arts Board, continuing this role until 1975. He was also a member of the Institute of Aboriginal studies.
Children's Book Council of Australia Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1974: commended for The Giant Devil-Dingo
Fellowship of Australian Writers Patricia Weickhardt Award to an Aboriginal Writer, 1976 for The Rainbow Serpent
Fellowship of Australian Writers Patricia Weickhardt Award to an Aboriginal Writer, 1976.
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1976: winner for The Rainbow Serpent
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1979: winner for The Quinkins
IBBY (International Board on Books for Young People) Honour Diploma, Illustration, 1980 for The Quinkins
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1983: commended for Turramulli the Giant Quinkin
The Order of the British Empire, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, for Service to Aboriginal Art and Culture, 1978
These notable awards for his publications were significant in contributing to cross-cultural communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.
His cultural contributions inspired the establishment of the Gooalathaldin Memorial Community Centre, which opened in his honour on Mornington Island in 2003.
The Colossus was the first electric programmable computer used by the British during World War II. The Colossus was used as a codebreaker to decode the Lorenz cipher, giving the Allies valuable military intelligence during the war.
There were two versions of the Colossus computer: the Mark 1 Colossus with 1,600 vacuum tubes, which became operational on February 5, 1944, and the Mark 2 Colossus on June 1, 1944. By the end of the war, there were ten total Colossus computers in use.
- USA TODAY, Dec. 21, President-elect Joe Biden receives first dose of COVID-19 vaccine
- USA TODAY, Dec. 18, 'I didn't feel a thing': Vice President Mike Pence gets COVID-19 vaccine on camera
- USA TODAY, Dec. 14, A 'magical' moment: First COVID-19 vaccinations raise hopes on historic day marked by another grim milestone
- Reuters, April 29, False claim: Bill Gates refused to vaccinate his children
- Associated Press, May 6, Bill Gates did not refuse to vaccinate his children
- Melinda Gates' Facebook, April 18, 2019, post
- NBC's "Today," Dec. 3, Bill Gates: ‘It looks like almost all the vaccines are going to succeed’
- Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, VACCINE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE
- USA TODAY, Dec. 10, The Gates Foundation adds $250M gift to fight COVID-19 worldwide: Melinda Gates explains why
- Email correspondence with Amy Rose, a Pfizer spokesperson
- CNBC, Dec. 14, Pfizer’s CEO hasn’t gotten his Covid vaccine yet, saying he doesn’t want to cut in line
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