Charlie Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin


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Charlie Chaplin was a British-born actor, considered to be one of the pivotal stars of Hollywood`s early days. He was often associated with his popular Little Tramp character, with a toothbrush mustache, bowler hat, cane, and funny walk.An early career startCharles Spencer Chaplin was born in London, England, on April 16, 1889. As a result, Charlie and his half-brother, Sydney, moved in and out of charity homes and workhouses.The brothers inherited talent from their parents and took to the stage. Charlie made his professional debut at the age of eight as a member of The Eight Lancashire Lads, and became an outstanding tap dancer.When Charlie was 18, he began to tour with Fred Karno`s Vaudeville troupe, and traveled with it to the United States in 1910. Sydney moved over from England and took Charlie’s old place at Keystone.A career flourishesIn 1916, Chaplin signed with Mutual Film Corporation for an even larger salary, to make 12 two-reel comedies. Some of them were The Vagabond, One A.M., in which he was virtually the only character for the entire two reels; and Easy Street, considered to be his greatest production up to that time.Chaplin entered an agreement with First National Studios in 1917, to build Chaplin Studios. His first film under the new deal was A Dog’s Life.He then turned his attention to a national tour on behalf of the World War I effort, followed by a film, The Bond, which he made for the U.S. In 1919, Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and D.W. Griffith formed United Artists (UA).Chaplin was obligated to complete his contract with First National before he could take on responsibilities with United Artists. He came out with The Kid (1921), a six-reel masterpiece that introduced Jackie Coogan, one of the world`s greatest child actors.Under his agreement with United Artists, Chaplin created eight full-feature films from 1923 to 1966. Woman of Paris was the first (1923). In 1940, he played a dual role and talked for the first time on screen in The Great Dictator, a parody of Adolf Hitler. In 1947, a new Charlie emerged without his mustache, baggy pants and wobbly cane in Monsieur Verdoux. In 1966, he produced A Countess from Hong Kong, his last picture, starring Sophia Loren and Marlon Brando.

Under scrutiny

Chaplin resided in the United States from 1914 to 1952, but retained his British nationality. Like other Hollywood personalities, he became a suspected communist, and FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiated what became an extensive file on the actor. When Chaplin left on a trip to England, Hoover negotiated with the Immigration and Naturalization Service to revoke his re-entry permit. Chaplin and his family then took up residency in Vevey, Switzerland. He briefly returned to the States in 1972, to receive an honorary Oscar for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century."Queen Elizabeth II bestowed a knighthood upon Chaplin on March 4, 1975.The veteran actor/producer displayed other talents, including musical scores he composed for many of his films. He also wrote two books, My Autobiography in 1964, and My Life in Pictures in 1974.A tumultuous private lifeChaplin was married four times and had 11 children. His first marriage was to Mildred Harris in 1918. She was 12 years younger than he. The union produced one son who died in infancy. They divorced in 1920.Chaplin married Lita Grey in 1924, after she became pregnant. He was 35; she was 16. They had two sons, then went through a bitter divorce in 1928.Following the divorce, Chaplin announced that he had secretly married Paulette Goddard in 1936; the marriage ended in 1942.*Oona O’Neill wedded Chaplin in 1943. She was 17; he was 54. That long and happy marriage produced three sons and five daughters.The endCharlie Chaplin died of natural causes at his home in Switzerland, on December 25, 1977. He was interred in the cemetery of Corsier-Sur-Vevey, Vaud canton, Switzerland.On March 1, 1978, Chaplin`s body was stolen in an attempt to extort money from his family. The robbers were captured, and the body was recovered 11 weeks later, near Lake Geneva. His remains were re-buried in a vault surrounded by cement.Charlie Chaplin was considered to be one of the greatest film makers in the history of American cinema, whose movies continue to be popular throughout the world.


*Around that time, Chaplin briefly dated actress Joan Barry, but ended the relationship when she began to harass him and display signs of severe mental illness. In 1943, she filed a paternity suit against him. Blood tests proved Chaplin was not the father, but such tests were inadmissible evidence at the time. He was ordered to pay $75 a week until the child turned 21.


Charlie Chaplin's Tragic Real-Life Story

No one in history has made people laugh as much as Charlie Chaplin. The Little Tramp was silent cinema's first mega star, a character so recognizable that The Guardian has called him "the most famous man who ever lived." Even today, there are people living in random, out-of-the-way places from Albania to Eritrea to inner Mongolia who would still be able to tell you Chaplin's name just from glancing at a picture of him. That was the power of Chaplin's timeless comedy: He could make you continue to associate things like toothbrush mustaches with laughter even after Adolf Hitler had ruined them for everyone.

Yet Chaplin's real life was as far from a laugh a minute as you can possibly get. While his films have been criticized in our cynical modern world for a tendency toward saccharin sweetness and blatant tear jerking, the guy dreaming up all this schmaltz was far from smiling on the inside. From his early years trapped in biting poverty in London to his later mauling by the American political establishment and his own inability to say no to his darkest temptations, Charlie Chaplin was a clown who wasn't just crying behind the facepaint, but screaming his way through an absurdly bleak existence.


Charlie Chaplin Was a Sadistic Tyrant Who Fucked Teenage Girls

This weekend, Charlie Chaplin, a man whose face you know and movies you don&apost, would have celebrated his 127th birthday. Though no birth certificate for the British film icon has ever been found, it&aposs generally accepted that he was born on April 16, 1889. Celebrities&apos birthdays are completely irrelevant, yet many have noted that the beloved Aries entered the world just four days before another toothbrush-mustached famous person: Adolf Hitler. Although Chaplin&aposs ridiculous facial hair came with a sense for slapstick, the pair are often compared, and not just because the "tyrannical director" satirized the tyrannical dictator in a 1940 film.

Born into poverty in south London to a deadbeat dad and a mentally ill mother, Charlie Chaplin had all the makings of a rags-to-riches success story. The hard-working, spottily educated little Chaplin spent his childhood as a clog dancer, in and out of workhouses and relatives&apos homes, before learning physical comedy from the legendary British comedian Fred Karno. From there, according to Peter Ackroyd&aposs 2014 biography Charlie Chaplin: A Brief Life, Chaplin rose to the status of "the most famous man in the world" by the age of 26. This compelling background𠅌ombined with a huge Hollywood salary and the respect and adoration Chaplin commanded in spite of being about 5&apos5"𠅊llowed the actor to sleep with what he estimated were about 2,000 women during his lifetime.

While as a boast this is obnoxious and as a fact it could be neutral, it was these women𠅊long with the children a few of them bore him—who endured the brunt of Chaplin&aposs selfish, domineering, and cruel personality. It seemed that as the public quickly succumbed to "Chaplinitis" or "Chaplinoia," it quickly went to Chaplin&aposs head. One of the first women to experience this, according to Ackroyd, was Edna Purviance, a 19-year-old actress Chaplin hired from an ad he placed in the San Francisco Chronicle. (It read "Wanted—the prettiest girl in California to take part in a moving picture.") The pair quickly became more than costars, but as Chaplin&aposs dedication to his work eclipsed the attention he paid his girlfriend—when he visited New York, Ackroyd notes, Chaplin would not write to her—he became surprised when she started seeing another man.

Chaplin&aposs next conquest took place during a time when his routine at parties was to "imitate the manner in which the leading ladies of the day might experience orgasm," Ackroyd writes. It was with an even younger starlet, the 16-year-old Mildred Harris, who soon informed him she was pregnant with his child. Spooked both at the prospect of domestic responsibility and of a scandal, Chaplin arranged a marriage, which took place in October 1918. It turned out the pregnancy was a false alarm, or a trick. Very soon, according to Ackroyd, Chaplin started to regret all of it: He thought Harris had bamboozled him into marriage and found her embarrassing, a bad actress, and "no mental heavyweight." He would be short and moody with her, often leaving home for days at a time without telling her where he was going. After she truly became pregnant with his child, she had a nervous breakdown, due in part to his mistreatment.

In 1920, the same year he and Harris went through a bitter divorce, Chaplin met the 12-year-old who would become his next wife, Lillita MacMurray, who later went by the professional name of Lita Grey. Although Chaplin admired Grey (even commissioning a portrait of her), he held off on pursuing her until she was a more appropriate 16 years old and playing a small role in his 1924 film The Gold Rush. She, too, became pregnant out of wedlock Chaplin, spooked this time by the prospect of criminal charges, secretly married her in November 1924. She had two of his children before they divorced, amidst affairs and the failure of her career, in 1927.

Chaplin in "A Dog's Life," 1918. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

The next marriage was Chaplin&aposs most appropriate and least awful: In 1932 he began dating the 22-year-old actress Paulette Goddard, with whom he&aposd enjoy a decent working relationship until 1942. (They probably married, but no one is really sure.) The most important film they worked together on was 1940&aposs controversial The Great Dictator, after which their relationship deteriorated. (When Goddard was informed𠅋y grave robbers looking for a ransom—that Chaplin had died, she replied, "So what?" and slammed down the phone.)

The film—one of Chaplin&aposs most known and most important—is often interpreted as a straightforward satire of the eponymous Führer, aided by Chaplin&aposs identical mustache. But let us remember that that mustache was not grown for the role Chaplin had been sporting it for much of his career. While the film parodies Hitler as the nonsensical, wildly gesticulating Adenoid Hynkel, it is also uncomfortably sympathetic in ways the dictator himself screened the film for his own private viewing twice, and he was not known as someone who enjoyed a bit of constructive criticism.

But back to the women: As they say, the fourth time&aposs the charm. In 1943, amidst criticism from the US government for (allegedly) both pro-war and pro-communist sympathizing, Chaplin wedded another much-younger woman, the Irish playwright Eugene O&aposNeill&aposs daughter, Oona. Oona was 18 Chaplin, 54 Eugene, the same age, was so furious that he disinherited Oona (though they had a tumultuous relationship anyway). Despite widespread criticism, however, the marriage lasted until Chaplin&aposs death, resulted in eight children, and was described as one of "true happiness."

This assessment is often trotted out in biographies, an attempt to depict Chaplin as a womanizer-turned-wholesome-husband he was always preciously looking to his young wife for her opinion or help, both on set and in life! While this may be true, their marriage was also plagued by Chaplin&aposs exacting standards, outbursts, raging temper, and cruelty towards his children. According to Jane Scovell&aposs Oona: Living in the Shadows, the actress Joan Collins said that O&aposNeill "catered" to her fatherly husband with "an almost geishalike deference." And according to Marlon Brando&aposs autobiography, Chaplin treated Sydney, one of the sons he fathered with Grey, "cruelly." When Brando and Sydney, also an actor, worked with Chaplin on the 1967 film A Countess from Hong Kong, Brando writes that Chaplin humiliated his son in front of Brando and the rest of the cast Sydney told Brando that his father "treated all his children this way." Brando was also on the receiving end of Chaplin&aposs ire. "In front of the whole cast Chaplin berated me, embarrassing me, telling me that I had no sense of professional ethics and that I was a disgrace to my profession," Brando wrote. His mistake? Arriving on set 15 minutes late.

In other words, while more critical biographers paint the picture of an arrogant genius who manipulated those around him with no remorse, Brando is slightly more blunt. "Chaplin," he writes, "was probably the most sadistic man I&aposd ever met."

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Contents

In 1964 Chaplin established his official filmography with the publication of his book, My Autobiography. The filmography consisted of 80 motion pictures released since 1914. Further detail was added to it in David Robinson's 1985 biography, Chaplin: His Life and Art, which included Chaplin's last film, A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), as the 81st entry. In 2010 the 82nd film was added with the discovery of A Thief Catcher, an early Keystone film hitherto thought lost. [10]

All of Chaplin's films up to and including The Circus (1928) were silent, although many were re-issued with soundtracks. City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936) were essentially silent films, although they were made with soundtracks consisting of music and sound effects, with talking sequences in the latter film. Chaplin's last five films were all talking pictures. Aside from A Countess From Hong Kong, all of Chaplin's films were photographed in 35mm black-and-white.

Except where otherwise referenced, the release dates, character names, and annotations presented here are derived from Chaplin's autobiography, Robinson's book, and The Films of Charlie Chaplin (1965) by Gerald D. McDonald, Michael Conway, and Mark Ricci.

Keystone Edit

Chaplin appeared in 36 films for Keystone Studios, all produced by Mack Sennett. Except where noted, all films were one reel in length.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
2 February 1914 Making a Living Slicker
7 February 1914 Kid Auto Races at Venice Tramp Released on a split-reel (i.e. two films on one reel) with an education film, Olives and Trees. Added to the National Film Registry in 2020.
9 February 1914 Mabel's Strange Predicament Tramp Filmed before but released after Kid Auto Races at Venice, hence it was in this film that the Tramp costume was first used. [11]
19 February 1914 A Thief Catcher A Policeman Print discovered in 2010. [10]
28 February 1914 Between Showers Masher (The Tramp)
2 March 1914 A Film Johnnie The Film Johnnie (The Tramp)
9 March 1914 Tango Tangles Tipsy Dancer
16 March 1914 His Favorite Pastime Drinker (The Tramp)
26 March 1914 Cruel, Cruel Love Lord Helpus
4 April 1914 The Star Boarder The Star boarder (The Tramp)
18 April 1914 Mabel at the Wheel Villain Two reels
20 April 1914 Twenty Minutes of Love Yes Yes Pickpocket (The Tramp)
27 April 1914 Caught in a Cabaret Waiter (The Tramp) Two reels. Co-writer: Mabel Normand
4 May 1914 Caught in the Rain Yes Yes Tipsy Hotel Guest (The Tramp)
7 May 1914 A Busy Day Yes Yes Wife Released on a split-reel with an educational short, The Morning Papers.
1 June 1914 The Fatal Mallet Suitor (The Tramp)
4 June 1914 Her Friend the Bandit Yes Yes Bandit The only known Chaplin lost film. [12] Co-director: Mabel Normand
11 June 1914 The Knockout Referee (Considered by some to be The Tramp) Two reels
13 June 1914 Mabel's Busy Day Tipsy Nuisance
20 June 1914 Mabel's Married Life Yes Yes Mabel's Husband (The Tramp) Co-writer: Mabel Normand
9 July 1914 Laughing Gas Yes Yes Dentist's Assistant (The Tramp)
1 August 1914 The Property Man Yes Yes The Property Man (The Tramp) Two reels
10 August 1914 The Face on the Barroom Floor Yes Yes Artist (The Tramp) Based on the poem by Hugh Antoine d'Arcy.
13 August 1914 Recreation Yes Yes Tramp Released as a split-reel with a travel short, The Yosemite.
27 August 1914 The Masquerader Yes Yes Film Actor (The Tramp)
31 August 1914 His New Profession Yes Yes Charlie (The Tramp)
7 September 1914 The Rounders Yes Yes Reveller Co-starring Roscoe Arbuckle
24 September 1914 The New Janitor Yes Yes Janitor (The Tramp)
10 October 1914 Those Love Pangs Yes Yes Masher (The Tramp)
26 October 1914 Dough and Dynamite Yes Yes Waiter (The Tramp) Two reels. Co-writer: Mack Sennett
29 October 1914 Gentlemen of Nerve Yes Yes Impecunious Track Enthusiast (The Tramp)
7 November 1914 His Musical Career Yes Yes Piano Mover (The Tramp)
9 November 1914 His Trysting Place Yes Yes Husband (The Tramp) Two reels
5 December 1914 Getting Acquainted Yes Yes Spouse (The Tramp)
7 December 1914 His Prehistoric Past Yes Yes Weakchin (The Tramp) Two reels
21 December 1914 Tillie's Punctured Romance Charlie, a City Slicker Six reels. From the play, Tillie's Nightmare, by A. Baldwin Sloane and Edgar Smith.

Essanay Edit

Chaplin wrote, directed, and starred in 15 films for the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company, all produced by Jesse T. Robbins. Except where noted all films are two-reelers.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
1 February 1915 His New Job Yes Yes Film Extra (The Tramp)
15 February 1915 A Night Out Yes Yes Reveller (The Tramp) Debut of Edna Purviance
11 March 1915 The Champion Yes Yes Aspiring Pugilist (The Tramp)
18 March 1915 In the Park Yes Yes Charlie (The Tramp) One reel
1 April 1915 A Jitney Elopement Yes Yes Suitor, the Fake Count (The Tramp)
11 April 1915 The Tramp Yes Yes The Tramp
29 April 1915 By the Sea Yes Yes Stroller (The Tramp) One reel
21 June 1915 Work Yes Yes Decorator's Apprentice (The Tramp)
12 July 1915 A Woman Yes Yes Charlie / "The Woman" (The Tramp)
9 August 1915 The Bank Yes Yes Janitor (The Tramp)
4 October 1915 Shanghaied Yes Yes Charlie (The Tramp)
20 November 1915 A Night in the Show Yes Yes Mr. Pest and Mr. Rowdy
18 December 1915 A Burlesque on Carmen Yes Yes Darn Hosiery Re-issued on 22 April 1916, as an unauthorised four-reeler with new footage shot and assembled by Leo White.
27 May 1916 Police Yes Yes Ex-Convict (The Tramp)
11 August 1918 Triple Trouble Yes Yes Janitor (The Tramp) Compilation assembled by Leo White with scenes from Police and an unfinished short, Life, along with new material shot by White. Chaplin includes this production in the filmography of his autobiography.

Mutual Edit

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in 12 films for the Mutual Film Corporation, which formed Lone Star Studios solely for Chaplin's films. All of the Mutual releases are two reels in length. In 1932, Amadee J. Van Beuren of Van Beuren Studios purchased Chaplin's Mutual comedies for $10,000 each, added music by Gene Rodemich and Winston Sharples and sound effects, and re-released them through RKO Radio Pictures. [13]

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
15 May 1916 The Floorwalker Yes Yes Yes Impecunious Customer (The Tramp) Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
12 June 1916 The Fireman Yes Yes Yes Fireman (The Tramp) Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
10 July 1916 The Vagabond Yes Yes Yes Street Musician (The Tramp) Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
7 August 1916 One A.M. Yes Yes Yes Drunk
4 September 1916 The Count Yes Yes Yes Tailor's Apprentice (The Tramp)
2 October 1916 The Pawnshop Yes Yes Yes Pawnbroker's Assistant (The Tramp)
13 November 1916 Behind the Screen Yes Yes Yes Property Man's Assistant (The Tramp)
4 December 1916 The Rink Yes Yes Yes Waiter and Skating Enthusiast (The Tramp)
22 January 1917 Easy Street Yes Yes Yes Vagabond recruited to Police Force (The Tramp)
16 April 1917 The Cure Yes Yes Yes Alcoholic Gentleman at Spa (Considered by some to be The Tramp)
17 June 1917 The Immigrant Yes Yes Yes Immigrant (The Tramp) Added to the National Film Registry in 1998. [14]
22 October 1917 The Adventurer Yes Yes Yes Escaped Convict (The Tramp)

First National Edit

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in 9 films for his own production company between 1918 and 1923. These films were distributed by First National.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
14 April 1918 A Dog's Life Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue
29 September 1918 The Bond Yes Yes Yes Tramp Half-reel. Co stars brother Sydney Chaplin
20 October 1918 Shoulder Arms Yes Yes Yes Yes Recruit (The Tramp) Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.
15 May 1919 Sunnyside Yes Yes Yes Yes Farm Handyman (The Tramp) Three reels. Score composed for 1974 re-release.
15 December 1919 A Day's Pleasure Yes Yes Yes Yes Father (The Tramp) Two reels. First film with Jackie Coogan, future star of The Kid. Score composed for 1973 re-release.
6 February 1921 The Kid Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp Six reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release. Added to the National Film Registry in 2011. [15]
25 September 1921 The Idle Class Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp / Husband Two reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release.
2 April 1922 Pay Day Yes Yes Yes Yes Laborer (The Tramp) Two reels. Score composed for 1972 re-release. Chaplin's final short (of less than 30 minutes running time).
26 February 1923 The Pilgrim Yes Yes Yes Yes Escaped Convict (Considered by some to be The Tramp) Four reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.

United Artists Edit

Chaplin began releasing his films through United Artists in 1923. From this point on all of his films were of feature length. He produced, directed, and wrote these eight films and starred in all but the first. Beginning with City Lights Chaplin wrote the musical scores for his films as well.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
26 September 1923 A Woman of Paris Yes Yes Yes Yes Porter Chaplin has a small cameo role. Score composed for 1976 re-issue.
26 June 1925 The Gold Rush Yes Yes Yes Yes Lone Prospector (The Tramp) Score composed for 1942 re-issue. Added to the National Film Registry in 1992. [16]
6 January 1928 The Circus Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp Score composed for 1970 re-issue. The Academy Film Archive preserved The Circus in 2002. [17]
30 January 1931 City Lights Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp Added to the National Film Registry in 1991. [18]
5 February 1936 Modern Times Yes Yes Yes Yes A factory worker (The Tramp) Added to the National Film Registry in 1989. [19]
15 October 1940 The Great Dictator Yes Yes Yes Yes Adenoid Hynkel / The Barber (Considered by some to be The Tramp) Added to the National Film Registry in 1997. [20] Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor, Best Picture and Best Writing. [7]
11 April 1947 Monsieur Verdoux Yes Yes Yes Yes Monsieur Henri Verdoux Based on an idea by Orson Welles. [21] Nominated for Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay). [7]
16 October 1952 Limelight Yes Yes Yes Yes Calvero Pulled from American screens shortly after its release when Chaplin became a political exile from the United States. [22] Academy Award for Best Music (Scoring). (Awarded in 1973 when the film became first eligible for Academy Award consideration via Los Angeles screenings.) [7]

British productions Edit

In 1952, while travelling to England to attend the première of his film, Limelight, Chaplin learned that his American re-entry permit was rescinded. As a result, his last two films were made in England.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
12 September 1957 A King in New York Yes Yes Yes Yes King Shahdov Last starring role. An Attica-Archway production
Not released in the United States until 1972.
5 January 1967 A Countess from Hong Kong Yes Yes Yes An Old Steward A Universal Production in Panavision and Technicolor. Produced by Jerome Epstein.
Chaplin has a small cameo role.

In addition to his official 82 films, Chaplin has several unfinished productions in his body of work. He made several cameo appearances as himself and was featured in several compilation films.

Uncompleted and unreleased films Edit

Year(s) Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
1915–1916 Life Yes Yes Yes Uncompleted, although parts were used in The Essanay-Chaplin Revue (see below).
1918 How to Make Movies Yes Yes Yes Himself Never assembled, although parts were used in The Chaplin Revue (see below). Reconstructed in 1981 by Kevin Brownlow and David Gill. [23]
(untitled film) Yes Yes Yes Himself A charity film co-starring Harry Lauder.
1919 The Professor Yes Yes Yes Professor Bosco Slated as a two-reeler, but never issued.
c.1922 Nice and Friendly Yes Yes Yes Tramp Improvised sketch.
1926 A Woman of the Sea Yes Completed but never released. Chaplin had the negative burned on 24 June 1933, making it lost.
1933 All at Sea Himself An 11-minute home film shot by Alistair Cooke onboard Chaplin's boat, Panacea, and featuring Cooke with Chaplin and Paulette Goddard. [24]
1966–1975 The Freak Yes A production planned for Chaplin's daughter, Victoria.

Compilations Edit

Many Chaplin-unauthorized compilations of his Keystone, Essanay and Mutual films were released in the years following his departure from those companies. This is not an exhaustive list but does contain the most notable and widely released examples. Eventually Chaplin re-edited and scored his First National shorts for reissue in 1959 and 1975.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
Composer Producer Writer Director Role
31 March 1915 Introducing Charlie Chaplin Promo film intended for exhibitors to show as a prologue to Chaplin films.
23 September 1916 The Essanay-Chaplin Revue Yes Yes Ex-convict Compiled by Leo White from portions of Police and Life with new material directed by White.
1916 Zepped A 7-minute reel of this WWI propaganda short, was discovered in 2009, [25] with a second in 2011. [26] The first copy was bought on eBay and later put up for auction, but the only bid failed to reach the reserve price. [27]
May 1918 Chase Me Charlie Yes Yes A seven-reel montage of Essanay films, edited by Langford Reed. Released in England.
Circa 1920 Charlie Butts In Yes Yes Essentially a one-reel version of the second Essanay short, A Night Out, incorporating alternate takes and footage of Chaplin conducting a band at Mer Island.
1938 The Charlie Chaplin Carnival Yes Yes Yes Yes Property Man's Assistant / Tailor's Apprentice / Fireman / Street Musician Compiled from Behind the Screen, The Count, The Fireman, and The Vagabond, with additional music and added sound effects.
1938 The Charlie Chaplin Calvacade Yes Yes Yes Yes Drunk / Waiter and Skating Enthusiast / Pawnbroker's Assistant / Impecunious Customer Compiled from One A.M., The Rink, The Pawnshop, and The Floorwalker, with additional music and added sound effects.
1938 The Charlie Chaplin Festival Yes Yes Yes Yes Immigrant / The Derelict / The Inebriate / The Convict Compiled from The Adventurer, The Cure, Easy Street and The Immigrant, with additional music and added sound effects.
25 September 1959 The Chaplin Revue Yes Yes Yes Yes Tramp / Recruit / Escaped Convict / Himself Compiled from A Dog's Life, Shoulder Arms, The Pilgrim, and How to Make Movies.
1975 The Gentleman Tramp A compilation documentary featuring new scenes of Chaplin at his home in Switzerland.

Cameos Edit

In addition to his own productions of A Woman of Paris (1923) and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), Chaplin made cameo appearances as himself in the following films:


How Important Was Charlie Chaplin?

Professor Jordan talked a lot about how Charlie Chaplin was and still is one of the most recognizable figures in history with his character of The Tramp. I wanted to look into it. Because I was never one for “silent” films, I didn’t really get the whole Chaplin thing. I mean, I know people have talked about him and said that he was important, but from what I saw, he was just another actor from back in the day.

A lot of what I saw showed that Chaplin was one of the biggest figures responsible for the transition of movies from what was essentially just a play on film to the medium we know them as today. As in, before (like we saw with A Trip To The Moon), the camera was in a single position and actors did their whole scenes in one take in front of it. Sure, the lack of voices meant that there had to be more expression, but that didn’t keep the actors from still acting in plays. Chaplin, even in a time when voices could be added to movies, made it much more expressive. The cameras focused on his expressions and his nonverbal communication. This was a huge impact for films, and still is today.

In fact, many actors still cite Chaplin as their inspiration for a lot of their performances. Gene Wilder (Willy Wonka from Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory) got the inspiration for his “very funny things said in a very serious tone” style of acting form watching Charlie Chaplin. Even great actors like Charlie Depp try to emulate the great Chaplin in their films, and often have a hard time. Depp even had to do one of Chaplin’s famous dances (the one with the dinner rolls) in one of his movies, and said he struggled with just the level of talent that Chaplin had.

After death, Chaplin is still known as one of the great American actors. Many have written on his impact, Winston Churchill included. It’s ironic, considering that he was born in London.


Charlie Chaplin Biography

Charlie Chaplin

Charles Chaplin was the greatest actor on the earth. Charlie was not solely an excellent actor but additionally an excellent individual. Charles Chaplin, born in Britain on 16 April 1889 and have become well-known all over the world in America, noticed excessive poverty.

Charlie Chaplin Biography Noticed the dad and mom falling aside. Noticed starvation and altering family. See the consistently altering addresses of the home. Despite all these circumstances, this nice artist saved appearing to feed laughter on some lips. Charlie additionally mentioned about his grief, “I like getting moist within the rain as a result of then nobody can see my tears”

On the younger age of five-six years, when the youngsters are busy taking part in and taking part in, this biggest artist began doing comedy at the moment along with his Charlie Chaplin Biography distinctive performances. Charlie Chaplin made his house the college of comedy and his dad and mom his grasp.

Charlie Chaplin Biography Each his dad and mom had been well-known singers and well-known stage performers of their occasions. At some point, all of the sudden, in a program, her mom misplaced her voice as a result of ailing well being. She was badly injured by some objects thrown by the viewers sitting within the theater. At the moment, with out delaying the second, this little boy was a little bit nervous, however with a agency perception in thoughts, he went alone on stage and managed your entire present on the DM of his comedy. After that Charlie Chaplin by no means regarded again in life.

Charlie Chaplin was a profitable comic in addition to movie director and producer and musician of American cinema. From childhood to the age of 88, Charlie carried out all of the tasks of appearing, director, screenplay, manufacturing and music. Charlie Chaplin Biography Charlie was probably the most artistic and influential folks of his period. He adopted simplicity all through his life and made the comedy attain such heights, which until date the opposite artist couldn’t even contact.

Charlie started his appearing profession with the position of a Web page Boy throughout the making of Sherlock Holmes. Then he began working within the Natyamandali Caseys Court docket Circus. In 1908, Charlie Chaplin Biography he joined the Fred Karno firm and received the hearts of the viewers whereas appearing drunk. When Charlie was presenting this system within the US with the troupe, impressed by his efficiency, filmmaker Mac Senate signed him with $ 150 per week.

In 1914, Charlie made his appearing debut within the movie Making A Dwelling. He determined to make Litic Trump’s character on display. And on this he acquired immense recognition. The next yr he acted in 35 movies. In 1915, Charlie left Sennett’s firm and started working with Esne Firm. Charlie Chaplin Biography This firm was paying him $ 1250 each week. Throughout this time, Charlie appointed his brother Sydney as a enterprise supervisor. Charlie Chaplin labored with this firm in 14 movies within the first yr, wherein the Tramp has basic standing.

Charlie Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin Biography By the age of 26, Charlie Chaplin had grow to be a famous person. Now he began appearing in Mutual Firm movies with a bundle of 6 lakh 70 thousand yearly. Charlie Chaplin based the United Artist Firm in affiliation with Douglas Fecherbach. His unforgettable movies had been produced within the twenties, together with movies reminiscent of The Child, The Pilgrim, Girls in Paris and The Gold Rush.

Charlie Chaplin married 16-year-old actress Mindred Harris in 1918. This marriage lasted for 2 years. In 1924, he married 16-year-old actress Lita Grey. Lita Grey gave beginning to 2 sons (Charles Jr. and Sydney). Married life couldn’t be nice and in 1927 each of them separated. In 1936, Charlie married Pollett Godard for the third time. Each lived collectively until 1942. On the identical time, an actress John Barry sued Charlie, accusing him of being the daddy of his son. This was not proved within the medical examination, but the court docket ordered Charlie to pay the bills of Barry’s diet.

Charlie Chaplin

In 1943, Charlie married 18-year-old Una O’Neill. This marriage proved to be completely satisfied. Una gave beginning to eight kids. He continued to supply movies like Citylight, The Nice Dictator and so forth. After the Second World Battle, a marketing campaign in opposition to the Communists of America began and Charlie was additionally focused. In 1952,

Charlie Chaplin Biography when Charlie went to Britain for a vacation, his return to America was banned. Charlie Chaplin lived in a farm in a spot referred to as Wavy, Switzerland. Within the final days of his life, Charlie Chaplin traveled to America in 1972 to obtain the Particular Academy Award. This nice artist died on the morning of 25 December 1977.

What is Charlie Chaplin remembered for?

Charlie Chaplin is best remembered for his recurring silent film character “the Little Tramp.” Outfitted in a too-small coat, too-large pants, floppy shoes, and a battered derby, Tramp was shunned by polite society and unlucky in love but ever a survivor. Audiences loved his cheekiness, his deflation of pomposity, his unexpected gallantry, and his resilience.

Where did Charlie Chaplin study?

Charlie Chaplin learned to perform onstage, debuting at age five (filling in for his mother) and becoming a professional entertainer at age eight as a clog dancer. He also had a stint with the vaudeville act Casey’s Court Circus. In 1908 he joined the Fred Karno pantomime troupe and quickly rose to star status.

Why is Charlie Chaplin important?

Comedian, actor, producer, writer, and director Charlie Chaplin is widely regarded as the greatest comic artist of the screen and one of the most important figures in motion-picture history. In 1972 he received a special Academy Award for “the incalculable effect he has had on making motion pictures the art form of this century.”


Chaplin and America Finally Call It Quits

Although Chaplin&rsquos support of the Soviet Union now had the full attention of the FBI, and Hollywood was drawing up a blacklist of known and suspected communists, the 1951 break came over one final tax dispute. He snuck aboard the Queen Elizabeth to dodge reporters and any possible subpoena servers, knowing full well that once he left the country his resident visa would lapse.

Though Chaplin could have requested a hearing, and would have likely been allowed back, he had already transferred or sold most of his assets. He divided his remaining years between his Swiss estate and a deluxe London hotel. Along with his movies, Chaplin&rsquos concern for poor working people faded into the past. His small social circle was now fellow millionaires and members of the aristocracy.

He died on Christmas Day 1977, following a British knighthood and a triumphant return to Hollywood in 1972 to accept a lifetime achievement Oscar , bygones apparently being bygones.

Publicity photo for Modern Times (Image Credit: United Artists)

Digital repair of Chaplin&rsquos cracked and worn silent movies, combined with recalibrated running speeds, have restored a breathtaking naturalness to what had become jumpy, scratched artifacts. A half century after Chaplin&rsquos death, his rejuvenated films live as he made them. His exquisite sense of craft and deft art of pantomime created a silent world of high emotion and physical grace. It feels timeless now, an antic reality adjacent to our own.


Contents

The character of the Tramp was originally created by accident while Chaplin was working at Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios, when dressing up for the 1914 short film Mabel's Strange Predicament starring Mabel Normand and Chaplin. In a 1933 interview, Chaplin explained how he came up with the look of the Tramp: [2]

A hotel set was built for (fellow Keystone comic) Mabel Normand's picture Mabel's Strange Predicament and I was hurriedly told to put on a funny make-up. This time I went to the wardrobe and got a pair of baggy pants, a tight coat, a small derby hat and a large pair of shoes. I wanted the clothes to be a mass of contradictions, knowing pictorially the figure would be vividly outlined on the screen. To add a comic touch, I wore a small mustache which would not hide my expression. My appearance got an enthusiastic response from everyone, including Mr. Sennett. The clothes seemed to imbue me with the spirit of the character. He actually became a man with a soul—a point of view. I defined to Mr. Sennett the type of person he was. He wears an air of romantic hunger, forever seeking romance, but his feet won't let him.

That was actually the first film featuring the Tramp but a different film, shot later but with the same character, happened to be released two days earlier. The Tramp debuted to the public in the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice (released on 7 February 1914 Mabel's Strange Predicament, shot earlier, was released on 9 February 1914). Chaplin, with his Little Tramp character, quickly became the most popular star in Keystone director Mack Sennett's company of players. Chaplin continued to play the Tramp through dozens of short films and, later, feature-length productions. (In only a handful of other productions did he play characters other than the Tramp).

The Tramp was closely identified with the silent era, and was considered an international character. When the sound era began in the late 1920s, Chaplin refused to make a talkie featuring the character, partly due to how the character was supposed to be American, and Chaplin himself had a strong and obvious English accent. [ citation needed ] The 1931 production City Lights featured no dialogue. Chaplin officially retired the character in the film Modern Times (released 5 February 1936), which appropriately ended with the Tramp walking down an endless highway toward the horizon. The film was only a partial talkie and is often called the last silent film. The Tramp remains silent until near the end of the film when, for the first time, his voice is finally heard, albeit only as part of a French/Italian-derived gibberish song. This allowed the Tramp to finally be given a voice but not tarnish his association with the silent era.

In The Great Dictator, Chaplin's first film after Modern Times, Chaplin plays the dual role of a Hitler-esque dictator, and a Jewish barber. Although Chaplin emphatically stated that the barber was not the Tramp, he retains the Tramp's moustache, hat, and general appearance. Despite a few silent scenes, including one where the barber is wearing the Tramp's coat and bowler hat and carrying his cane, the barber speaks throughout the film (using Chaplin's own English accent), including the passionate plea for peace that has been widely interpreted as Chaplin speaking as himself. [3]

In 1959, having been editing The Chaplin Revue, Chaplin commented to a reporter (regarding the Tramp character) "I was wrong to kill him. There was room for the Little Man in the atomic age." [4]

A vaudeville performer named Lew Bloom created a similar tramp character which inspired Chaplin. According to Bloom, he was "the first stage tramp in the business". [5] In an interview with the Daily Herald in 1957 Chaplin recalled being inspired by the tramp characters Weary Willie and Tired Tim from Illustrated Chips. [6]

The physical attributes of the Tramp include a pair of abnormally large baggy pants, an abnormally tight coat, an abnormal bowler hat, an abnormally large pair of shoes, an abnormally springy and flexible cane, and an abnormal toothbrush moustache - a mass of contradictions, as Chaplin wanted it to be. [7] The Tramp walks strangely and uncomfortably because of the ill-fitting clothing either he is wearing secondhand clothes, or they are originally his but he can't afford new ones, which brings us to the conclusion that the Tramp may have seen better days, but he maintains the attitude and demeanor of a high-class individual as long as he acts like one he can believe that he is one, and is able to keep his hope that some day he actually will be again.

Two films made in 1915, The Tramp and The Bank, created the characteristics of Chaplin's screen persona. While in the end the Tramp manages to shake off his disappointment and resume his carefree ways, the pathos lies in the Tramp's having a hope for a more permanent transformation through love, and his failure to achieve this. [8]

The Tramp was usually the victim of circumstance and coincidence, but sometimes the results worked in his favour. In Modern Times, he picks up a red flag that falls off a truck and starts to wave it at the truck in an attempt to return it, and by doing so, unknowingly and inadvertently becomes the leader of a group of protesting workers, and ends up in jail because of it. While in jail he accidentally eats "nose powder" (i.e., cocaine), which causes him to not return to his jail cell but when he eventually does, he fights off some jailbreakers attempting to escape, thus saving the life of the warden. Because of this, the warden offers to let him go, but the Tramp would rather stay in jail because it is better than the outside world.

Chaplin's social commentary, while critical of the faults and excesses created by industrialisation, also shows support for and belief in the "American Dream." In Modern Times, Chaplin creates a "portrayal consistent with popular leftist stereotypes of wealthy bussines [sic?] leaders and oppressed workers in the 1930s." [9] While the Tramp and his fellow workers sweat on the assembly line, the president of the Electro Steel Company works on a puzzle and reads comic strips in the newspaper. The obsession of working with efficiency and assembly-line productivity ultimately drives the Tramp mad. This could be seen as "an attack on the capitalist rationalization of production." [10] However, "the film also guardedly affirms American middle-class, particularly its optimism." [11] For example, one sequence depicts the Tramp's dream in which he and the gamine live a traditional middle-class lifestyle.

The Tramp and the gamine find a rundown shack to live in. The gamine cooks a cheap breakfast, and then the Tramp is off to work, while the gamine stays to maintain the home—an allusion to a middle-class setting. By the ending of Modern Times, "the film seems tailored to please the middle-class optimist." Due to all of their failings the final scene had the gamine stating, "What's the use of trying?", and the Tramp replying "Buck up—never say die." In his silent films, Chaplin uniquely deployed critical social commentary. "What makes Modern Times decidedly different from Chaplin's previous three films are the political references and social realism that keep intruding into Charlie's world." [12] "No comedian before or after him has spent more energy depicting people in their working lives." [13] "Though there had been films depicting the lives of immigrants and urban workers, no filmmaker before Chaplin had created their experience so humanly and lovingly." [14]

Chaplin used not one but two similar-looking characters to the Tramp in The Great Dictator (released 15 October 1940) however, this was an all-talking film (Chaplin's first). The film was inspired by the noted similarity between Chaplin's Tramp (most notably his small moustache) and that of German dictator Adolf Hitler. Chaplin used this similarity to create a dark version of the Tramp character in parody of the dictator. (In his book My Autobiography, Chaplin stated that he was unaware of the Holocaust when he made the film if he had been, he writes, he would not have been able to make a comedy satirising Hitler). In his autobiography, Chaplin identifies the barber as the Tramp. A noticeable difference is that the barber has a streak of grey in his hair, whereas the Tramp had always been depicted as having dark hair. Also, the barber lacks the ill-fitting clothes of the Tramp, and is clearly portrayed as having a profession. His character does share much of The Tramp's character, notably his idealism and anger on seeing unfairness.

Keystone Edit

Chaplin appeared in 36 films for Keystone Studios and 25 of them featured the Tramp character, all produced by Mack Sennett. Except where noted, all films were one reel in length.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
7 February 1914 Kid Auto Races at Venice The Tramp Released on a split-reel (i.e. two films on one reel) with an education film, Olives and Trees.
9 February 1914 Mabel's Strange Predicament The Tramp Filmed before but released after Kid Auto Races at Venice, hence it was in this film that the Tramp costume was first used. [15]
28 February 1914 Between Showers Masher Chaplin co-leads the film
2 March 1914 A Film Johnnie The Film Johnnie
16 March 1914 His Favourite Pastime Drinker
4 April 1914 The Star Boarder The Star boarder
20 April 1914 Twenty Minutes of Love Pickpocket
27 April 1914 Caught in a Cabaret Waiter Two reels. Co-writer: Mabel Normand
4 May 1914 Caught in the Rain Tipsy Hotel Guest
1 June 1914 The Fatal Mallet Suitor
11 June 1914 The Knockout Referee Two reels
20 June 1914 Mabel's Married Life Mabel's Husband Co-writer: Mabel Normand
The Tramp wears a top hat instead of a bowler.
9 July 1914 Laughing Gas Dentist's Assistant
1 August 1914 The Property Man The Property Man Two reels
##The Tramp wears no jacket
10 August 1914 The Face on the Bar Room Floor Artist Based on the poem by Hugh Antoine d'Arcy.
13 August 1914 Recreation The Tramp Released as a split-reel with a travel short, The Yosemite.
27 August 1914 The Masquerader Film Actor
31 August 1914 His New Profession Charlie
24 September 1914 The New Janitor Janitor
10 October 1914 Those Love Pangs Masher
26 October 1914 Dough and Dynamite Waiter Two reels. Co-writer: Mack Sennett
29 October 1914 Gentlemen of Nerve Impecunious Track Enthusiast
7 November 1914 His Musical Career Piano Mover
9 November 1914 His Trysting Place Husband Two reels
5 December 1914 Getting Acquainted Spouse
7 December 1914 His Prehistoric Past Weakchin Two reels

Essanay Edit

Chaplin wrote, directed, and starred in 15 films for the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company and 13 of them features The Tramp character, all produced by Jesse T. Robbins. Except where noted all films are two-reelers.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
1 February 1915 His New Job Film Extra
15 February 1915 A Night Out Reveller Debut of Edna Purviance
11 March 1915 The Champion Aspiring Pugilist
18 March 1915 In the Park Charlie One reel
1 April 1915 A Jitney Elopement Suitor, the Fake Count
11 April 1915 The Tramp The Tramp
29 April 1915 By the Sea Stroller One reel
21 June 1915 Work Decorator's Apprentice
12 July 1915 A Woman Charlie / "The Woman"
9 August 1915 The Bank Janitor
4 October 1915 Shanghaied Charlie
27 May 1916 Police Ex-Convict
11 August 1918 Triple Trouble Janitor Compilation assembled by Leo White with scenes from Police and an unfinished short, Life, along with new material shot by White. Chaplin includes this production in the filmography of his autobiography. Yet considered some not to be proper Tramp film, as Chaplin wasn't involved in this films production. Released two years after Chaplin left Essanay.

Mutual Edit

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in 12 films for the Mutual Film Corporation, 10 of which were Chaplin dressed properly as the character the remaining two were pseudo Tramp films were he wore the mustache but dressed in different clothes. Mutual formed Lone Star Studios solely for Chaplin's films. All of the Mutual releases are two reels in length. In 1932, Amadee J. Van Beuren of Van Beuren Studios purchased Chaplin's Mutual comedies for $10,000 each, added music by Gene Rodemich and Winston Sharples and sound effects, and re-released them through RKO Radio Pictures. [16]

Release date Title Credited as Notes
15 May 1916 The Floorwalker Impecunious Customer Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
Released prior to Chaplin's last Essanay film.
12 June 1916 The Fireman Fireman Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
Chaplin doesn't wear the Tramp's clothes, but wears oversized clothes and acts similarly to the character.
10 July 1916 The Vagabond Street Musician Co-writer: Vincent Bryan
7 August 1916 One A.M. Drunk Chaplin doesn't wear the Tramp's clothes, but wears rich mans clothes and acts similarly to the character.
4 September 1916 The Count Tailor's Apprentice
2 October 1916 The Pawnshop Pawnbroker's Assistant
13 November 1916 Behind the Screen Property Man's Assistant
4 December 1916 The Rink Waiter and Skating Enthusiast
22 January 1917 Easy Street Vagabond recruited to Police Force
16 April 1917 The Cure Alcoholic Gentleman at Spa Considered by some to be The Tramp
17 June 1917 The Immigrant Immigrant Added to the National Film Registry in 1998. [17]
22 October 1917 The Adventurer Escaped Convict A tuxedo version of the Tramp costume is worn

First National Edit

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and starred in 9 films for his own production company between 1918 and 1923. In all but one of them Chaplin dressed properly as the character in the remaining one the Pilgrim is a pseudo-Tramp film. These films were distributed by First National.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
14 April 1918 A Dog's Life The Tramp Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue
29 September 1918 The Bond The Tramp Half-reel. Co stars brother Sydney Chaplin
20 October 1918 Shoulder Arms Recruit Three reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.
15 May 1919 Sunnyside Farm Handyman Three reels. Score composed for 1974 re-release.
15 December 1919 A Day's Pleasure Father Two reels. First film with Jackie Coogan, future star of The Kid. Score composed for 1973 re-release.
6 February 1921 The Kid The Tramp Six reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release. Added to the National Film Registry in 2011. [18]
25 September 1921 The Idle Class The Tramp/ Husband Two reels. Score composed for 1971 re-release.
2 April 1922 Pay Day Laborer Two reels. Score composed for 1972 re-release. Chaplin's final short (of less than 30 minutes running time).
26 February 1923 The Pilgrim Escaped Convict C'onsidered by many to be a Tramp film, though Chaplin's character isn't very much like the Tramp. Most notably, the character wears different clothes. By extension of this, every Chaplin film is considered by some to be a Tramp film, though this is apparently apocryphal. Four reels. Score composed for compilation, The Chaplin Revue.

United Artists Edit

Chaplin wrote, produced, directed, and/or starred in eight films for United Artists, though only four of them featured the Tramp character (five if The Great Dictator is included as it is a pseudo-Tramp film. Chaplin also wrote the musical scores beginning with City Lights.

Release date Title Credited as Notes
26 June 1925 The Gold Rush Lone Prospector Score and new narriation composed for 1942 re-issue. Added to the National Film Registry in 1992. [19]
6 January 1928 The Circus The Tramp Score composed for 1970 re-issue. The Academy Film Archive preserved The Circus in 2002. [20]
30 January 1931 City Lights The Tramp Added to the National Film Registry in 1991. [21]
5 February 1936 Modern Times A factory worker (The Tramp) Added to the National Film Registry in 1989. [22]

Pseudo-Tramp Edit

Release date Title Credited as Notes
15 October 1940 The Great Dictator Adenoid Hynkel / The Barber Added to the National Film Registry in 1997. [23] Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor, Best Picture and Best Writing. [24] The film is considered by many, including Chaplin, to not be a Tramp film, though he does act like the Tramp as The Barber.

In the 1910s, due to the desire for more Chaplin films than Chaplin could make, many created their own character like The Tramp or even just played the Tramp. This has continued, though to a much lesser degree, after the 1910s due to people admiring Chaplin. Some films have been animated and obviously do not need an actor to play the character, who is portrayed as mute.

The most famous impersonation is that by Billy West.

Billy West films where he imitates The Tramp (list incomplete) Edit

  1. His Married Life (1916)
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is unknown if Billy is playing the Tramp.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.
    1. There's a lack of information on this film. It is possible Billy is not playing the Tramp, but due to films released around it having the character, it is unlikely.

    Animated films (list incomplete) Edit

    1. Charlie and the Windmill (1915)
    2. Charlie and the Indians (1915)
    3. Dreamy Dud Sees Charlie Chaplin (1915)
    4. Charlie's White Elephant (1916)
    5. How Charlie Captured the Kaiser (1918)
    6. Over the Rhine with Charlie (1918)
    7. Charlie in Turkey (1919)
    8. Charlie Treats 'Em Rough (1919)
    9. Charley Out West (1919)
    10. Charley on the Farm (1919)
    11. Charley at the Beach (1919)
    12. Felix in Hollywood (1923) (Cameo)
    13. Chaplin & Co (2011-2012) (Series)
    • At the peak of Chaplin's popularity, in 1915, a song was made about him, titled "Those Charlie Chaplin feet", which describes his funny character, the Tramp. [25]
    • The "tramp" character of Chaplin, according to Walt Disney, was one of the inspirations for the character of Mickey Mouse, saying "We wanted something appealing, and we thought of a tiny bit of a mouse that would have something of the wistfulness of Chaplin. a little fellow trying to do the best he could,". Ub Iwerks, the artist who helped Disney designing Mickey, said about the character "People accepted him as a symbolic character, and though he looked like a mouse, he was accepted as dashing and heroic."
    • Numerous works cite the Tramp as an icon of the Great Depression, of Charlie Chaplin himself, and of the downtrodden hero, from Chaplin's own films with similar characters (such as The Great Dictator), to Playboy Penguin, the dapper, silent penguin rescued by Bugs Bunny.
    • The Tramp made a cameo appearance in the 1974 Rankin/Bassstop motion holiday special The Year Without a Santa Claus.
    • In 1978, a year after Chaplin's death, the Peter, Sue and Marc band took part in the German finals with their song "Charlie Chaplin" as their entry. [26]
    • In the 1980s, the character was portrayed in advertising for the IBM PC personal computer. [27][28]
    • The cartoon character "Baggy Pants" presents an imitation of the Tramp.
    • From 1973 to 1990, the children's educational television series Sesame Street occasionally featured cast member Sonia Manzano, who played Maria, in character as the Tramp for some skits. Manzano was often accompanied by fellow cast member Linda Bove, who would play a second Tramp or a supporting character, typically a pretty lady. -actor Raj Kapoor was inspired by Chaplin's "tramp" character, adopting a similar "tramp" persona in a number of his films, such as Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1954). [29]
    • In 2006, Premiere issued its list of "The 100 Greatest Performances of all Time", putting Chaplin's performance as "The Tramp" in City Lights at No. 44. [30]
    • The Tramp is the main character in the CGI TV series Chaplin & Co. The show places the character in the 21st century, and features him meeting up with numerous characters (one of them being a modern version of the Kid) while retaining the humour from Chaplin's original films. dresses up as the Tramp in the opening couch gag in The Simpsons 2002 episode "Jaws Wired Shut".

    Citations Edit

    1. ^http://www.charliechaplin.com/en/biography/articles/6-Modern-Times
    2. ^ Charlie Chaplin (November 1933), "A Comedian Sees the World", Woman's Home Companion
    3. ^
    4. Truffaut, François (22 August 1994). The films in my life (1st Da Capo Press ed.). Da Capo Press. ISBN978-0-306-80599-8 .
    5. ^
    6. David Robinson (2014), Chaplin: His Life And Art, p. 137, ISBN978-0141979182
    7. ^
    8. DePastino, Todd (2003), Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America, University of Chicago Press, p. 157
    9. ^
    10. Gravett, Paul (2014). Comics Unmasked: Art and Anarchy in the UK. British Library. p. 50. ISBN978-0-7123-5735-7 .
    11. ^
    12. Frayling, Christopher (19 October 2012). "Charlie Chaplin: how he turned into the Tramp" . Retrieved 16 December 2018 .
    13. ^
    14. Hansmeyer, Christian (2007), Charlie Chaplin's Techniques for the Creation of Comic Effect in His Films, p. 4
    15. ^Maland 1991, p. 151.
    16. ^Maland 1991, p. 152.
    17. ^Maland 1991, p. 153.
    18. ^Maland 1991, p. 150.
    19. ^Maland 1991, p. 110.
    20. ^Maland 1991, p. 113.
    21. ^Robinson, p. 113. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRobinson (help)
    22. ^SilentComedians entryArchived 12 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
    23. ^
    24. "Hooray for Hollywood – Librarian Names 25 More Films to National Registry" (Press release). Library of Congress. 16 November 1998 . Retrieved 29 September 2009 .
    25. ^
    26. " ' Forrest Gump,' 'Bambi' join US film registry – Classic movies among 25 chosen for preservation by Library of Congress". today.msnbc.msn.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012 . Retrieved 28 December 2011 – via MSNBC.
    27. ^
    28. "25 American films are added to the National Film Registry". The Prescott Courier. Associated Press. 7 December 1992 . Retrieved 29 September 2009 .
    29. ^
    30. "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
    31. ^
    32. Andrews, Roberts M. (11 October 1991). "25 Films Designated For Preservation" (Fee required) . St. Louis Post-Dispatch . Retrieved 22 July 2009 .
    33. ^
    34. "Films Selected to The National Film Registry, Library of Congress 1989–2009". Library of Congress. Library of Congress. 2010 . Retrieved 18 October 2010 .
    35. ^
    36. "Librarian of Congress Names 25 New Films to National Film Registry" (Press release). Library of Congress. 18 November 1997 . Retrieved 30 September 2009 .
    37. ^
    38. "The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 2009 . Retrieved 25 November 2009 .
    39. ^
    40. Khan, Ayaan (30 July 2020). Those Charlie Chaplin Feet - 1915.
    41. ^
    42. Khan, Ayaan (30 July 2020). Peter, Sue and Marc - Charlie Chaplin.
    43. ^
    44. Maasik, Sonia Solomon, Jack (1994). Caputi, Jane (ed.). IBM's Charlie Chaplin: A Case Study. Signs of Life in the U.S.A.: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Boston: Bedford Books. pp. 117–121. ISBN9780312108229 – via University of Virginia. Alt URL
    45. ^
    46. Papson, Stephen (April 1990). "The IBM tramp". Jump Cut (35): 66–72.
    47. ^
    48. Mazumder, Ranjib (11 December 2015). "Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar". The Quint . Retrieved 23 February 2019 .
    49. ^"The 100 Greatest Performances"Archived August 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine filmsite.org

    Sources Edit

    Kevin Scott Collier. The Chaplin Animated Silent Cartoons. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2019. 1098846044


    Early Career

    Armed with his mother&aposs love of the stage, Chaplin was determined to make it in show business himself, and in 1897, using his mother&aposs contacts, he landed with a clog-dancing troupe named the Eight Lancashire Lads. It was a short stint, and not a terribly profitable one, forcing the go-getter Chaplin to make ends meet any way he could.

    "I (was) newsvendor, printer, toymaker, doctor&aposs boy, etc., but during these occupational digressions, I never lost sight of my ultimate aim to become an actor," Chaplin later recounted. "So, between jobs I would polish my shoes, brush my clothes, put on a clean collar and make periodic calls at a theatrical agency."

    Eventually, other stage work did come his way. Chaplin made his acting debut as a pageboy in a production of Sherlock Holmes. From there, he toured with a vaudeville outfit named Casey&aposs Court Circus and in 1908 teamed up with the Fred Karno pantomime troupe, where Chaplin became one of its stars as the Drunk in the comedic sketch A Night in an English Music Hall.

    With the Karno troupe, Chaplin got his first taste of the United States, where he caught the eye of film producer Mack Sennett, who signed Chaplin to a contract for a $150 a week.


    Revolution In The Air

    Chaplin may have read enchanting stories about Japan, but he didn’t realize he stepped foot into a land in the middle of upheaval.

    In February Japan’s finance minister was shot to death on the way to a speech. About a month later, the director of a large financial company was killed while walking into his office. Both were killed by young men under the direction of a shadowy group called the Blood Brotherhood (Ketsumeidan).

    Japan had been struggling economically in recent times. There was also a big divide between the military and civilian government. The military had taken on an expansion policy in China, ignoring orders from the government to reign in activities. While the government signed a treaty with global powers to limit the size of its navy, many military officers saw this as treasonous.

    “At Washington Japan had agreed to a sixty percent ration of the fleet strength of Britain and the United States. …What was worse, the government in Tokyo overruled the Chief of the Navy General Staff and accepted the London agreement in defiance of his protests. The navy, therefore, had a grievance of an acute kind, and young officers who believed that politicians and capitalists should be extirpated were swimming with the tide.”

    — “Government by Assassination”, Hugh Byas

    While the navy had some of the grievances above, which would cause younger officers to become radicalized, the army would also follow suit. According to Byas, a seemingly innocuous school called the Native-Land-Loving School would breed contempt within the army.

    The school which taught simple mathematics, bookkeeping, history, and agricultural management would become a major attraction for farmers. Byas would note that 80% of the army’s conscripts were farmers, many of whom had been radicalized by the school’s teachings.

    Their leader Kosaburo Tachibana would even speak on army bases, becoming a “spokesman of peasant unrest” according to Byas. Tachibana would preach the idea of a mixture of peasant and soldier returning Japan to its agrarian roots and cleansing it of capitalist influence.

    At the same time a Buddhist firebrand priest named Nissio Inoue would also be preaching at a temple built in the city of Mito. Although the temple was built with proceeds from an entrepreneur's streetcar company, the priest would preach anti-western propaganda and chastise the life created by capitalism.

    Disgruntled members of the Navy, Army, Nissio’s followers, and members of the Native-Land-Loving School would come together in one murderous band called the Blood Brotherhood. They’d plot chaos in order to cause a declaration of martial law, under which the emperor could rule the land and dissolve the government of civilian traitors.

    One of their plots just happened to coincide with the visit of Charlie Chaplin. In fact, he happened to be one of the initial targets.


    Did You Know That Charlie Chaplin Was Hated & Ridiculed For Not Enlisting in WW1

    Charlie Chaplin was ridiculed and denigrated when he didn’t volunteer to fight in the First World War. It was only after his death that the world realized how great a service he did by choosing the film studio over the battlefield.

    Publicity portrait of Chaplin c. 1920.

    The Tramp, Chaplin’s most memorable character which later went on to become an icon of world cinema, hit the screen for the first time in 1914. And it didn’t take long for the character to attract worldwide popularity during the era of silent film.

    Be it cinema screen or billboards, songs or comic strips, toys or adverts, the Tramp was everywhere. Crowds would clamor to go to the cinema to watch the character’s antics.

    Owing to the widespread popularity of his slapstick, Chaplin became a famed, universally-loved figure of his time at the age of just 25. His films, treated no less than a miraculous medication, were regularly shown to the injured soldiers of the First World War.

    The projectors were fitted in such a way as to project their images onto the ceilings of the hospitals, allowing bedridden soldiers to enjoy Chaplin’s films without having to sit up. The soldiers used to forget their emotional and physical trauma once they started watching the Tramp and his gags.

    Charlie Chaplin in his “Tramp” persona.

    Laughing helped reduce the sufferings of the war-wounded soldiers. As Chaplin puts it, “Laughter is the tonic, the relief, the surcease for pain.” Chaplin’s universal medicine of laughter entertained and cured a worldwide audience since it transcended the barriers of language.

    Field Marshal Lord Kitchener. IWM

    It was just a matter of time before the issue of Chaplin not enlisting was dramatically inflated by almost all media outlets. The little Tramp became the favorite target for cartoonists and journalists mainly because Chaplin’s rise to fame coincided with the outbreak of war.

    Chaplin, a British citizen working in the US, was ridiculed for not enlisting in either the US or the UK military. The leading media outlets of the time used to call him a “slacker.” The pressure increased significantly after the US joined the war on April 6th, 1917. That was when thousands of people sent angry letters and white feathers to Chaplin to shame him into fighting.

    Chaplin in Shoulder Arms.

    The smear campaign directed at shaming Chaplin for his failure to enlist was spearheaded by British press mogul Lord Northcliffe, the founder of the Daily Mail. Northcliffe reprimanded the actor numerous times in his publications, often demanding his immediate return to Britain.

    For instance, Northcliffe’s Daily Mail severely attacked Chaplin in March 1916 for a war-related clause in his contract with a production house, Mutual Film Corporation. The war risks clause noted that Chaplin must not return to his native land for the duration of the war.

    Another time, Northcliffe castigated Chaplin in a Weekly Dispatch editorial in June 1917, writing: “Charles Chaplin, although slightly built, is very firm on his feet, as is evidenced by his screen acrobatics. The way he is able to mount stairs suggests the alacrity with which he would go over the top when the whistle blew…

    Chaplin and Jackie Coogan in a publicity photo for The Kid.

    “In any case, it is Charlie’s duty to offer himself as a recruit and thus show himself proud of his British origin. It is his example which will count so very much, rather than the difference to the war that his joining up will make. We shall win without Charlie, but (his millions of admirers will say) we would rather win with him.”

    Northcliffe’s aggressive bullying tactics kept intensifying over time. At last, Chaplin had to register himself with the US armed forces to save his reputation. He also gave a whopping $250,000 to the US and Britain for war activities.

    Portrait of Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe.

    Like other British nationals living abroad, Chaplin waited for permission from the British embassy, which supported his explanation, saying: “We would not consider Chaplin a slacker unless we received instructions to put the compulsory services law into effect.” Similarly, the soldiers also didn’t consider the actor a slacker. According to David Robinson, Chaplin’s biographer, the attacks “certainly did not come from servicemen.”

    Though Chaplin had enlisted himself for the US military draft, he was rejected for being underweight and undersized. Unfortunately, the slacker attacks still continued, and people kept sending him white feathers.

    Chaplin, a confirmed pacifist, later directed his efforts to end the war sooner, especially when he realized how he could utilize his stardom for political purposes. By that time, the Hollywood icon had enough money and a studio to do whatever he wished.

    Portrait of Wilhelm II in 1902, by T. H. Voigt.

    And that’s when his anti-war comedy, Shoulder Arms, hit the cinema. Released in May 1918, the film presented a sarcastic but funny overview of the war. It featured the Tramp in an army camp as an awkward rooky who has to face several challenges in order to survive the deadly trenches.

    He is seen battling the dirty mud, the flooding, the persistent fear, and the grossly bad food. The Tramp eventually captures the Kaiser after he disguises himself as a tree trunk and crosses no man’s land in his hilarious camouflage.

    Chaplin’s anti-war sentiments only increased with time as his political clout strengthened later in his career. “Though he might make comedy from it,” Robinson writes, “the folly and tragedy and waste of war were always to bewilder and torment Chaplin.”

    Besides war, Chaplin also spoke against militarism and nationalism, most famously in The Great Dictator. The 1940 film was seen as pro-Communist propaganda by the critics because it mocked Mussolini and Hitler but didn’t target Stalin. Chaplin was branded Communist and hence began a new struggle – one that wouldn’t leave him until his death.

    “I am not a Communist. I am a human being, and I think I know the reactions of human beings,” Chaplin said while addressing the American Committee for Russian War Relief in San Francisco in 1942. “The Communists are no different from anyone else whether they lose an arm or a leg, they suffer as all of us do, and die as all of us die.

    By 1916, Chaplin was a global phenomenon. Here he shows off some of his merchandise, c. 1918.

    “And the Communist mother is the same as any other mother. When she receives the tragic news that her sons will not return, she weeps as other mothers weep. I do not have to be a Communist to know that. And at this moment Russian mothers are doing a lot of weeping and their sons a lot of dying.”

    Chaplin continued suffering denigration and political harassment after the Second World War. His subsequent works criticizing the class inequalities, such as 1947’s Monsieur Verdoux, revived the accusations of Communism against him.

    Chaplin and Edna Purviance, his regular leading lady, in Work (1915).

    Even though he was never arrested during the Red Scare, he remained under strict surveillance from the FBI for almost 40 years. This reached its peak in 1952 when his entry permit was revoked by the US government, and the actor decided to spend his remaining years in Switzerland.

    It wasn’t until after Chaplin’s death when the true value of his service was actually realized. Chaplin was much more useful in the film studio than he would’ve been on the battlefield.

    The laughter which his films produced was the much-needed cure for the sufferings of the war wounded soldiers – a cure which helped hundreds of thousands, if not millions, to stay alive and overcome the anxieties of their lives.


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