Prince Henry - History

Prince Henry - History


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Prince Henry

Prince Henry the Navigator was born on March 4, 1394 in Sagres Portugal. He was the third son of King John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster. Henry led a military expedition that captured Ceuta. This was Portugal's first overseas conquest.Henry became determined to expand Portugal's knowledge of Africa. At the time, no Europeans had sailed south of Cape Bojador. Sailors had feared sailing south of there, because they feared that the Southerly winds south of Cape Bojador would not allow them to return North. There were rumors that the waters to the south were so warm that the seas literally boiled.

Henry set his mind at overcoming these and other obstacles. He accumulated as much knowledge as possible about the areas. He hired cartographers (map makers) to update the maps and had ship designers go about designing a ship that would make a good exploration vessel. These designers developed the famous Caravel- a ship that could sail into the wind.

Henry then set a course to systematically explore the coast of Africa. He sent expedition after expedition, every time sailing further to the South. Henry was initially criticized for spending significant money on the exploration that did not provide any returns for Portugal. As his explorers found their way ever further into Africa, Portugal developed a very lucrative trade with West Africa.

Prince Henry died on November 13, 1460, before he could see his dream of reaching the Southern extreme of Africa realized. His determination to overcome all of the obstacles that stood in the way of exploration opened the way for the voyages of Dias and daGama, which opened up the Portuguese trade to the East.

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Because of Princess Diana’s desire that Harry and his elder brother, Prince William, experience the world beyond royal privilege, she took them as boys on public transportation and to fast food restaurants and stood in line with them at Disney World. Determined that they “have an understanding of people’s emotions, their insecurities, people’s distress, and their hopes and dreams,” she also took Harry and William with her when she visited homeless shelters, orphanages, and hospitals. Diana’s death at age 36 had a profound impact on Harry. The image of him at age 12 walking solemnly with William behind Diana’s casket as it was carried through the streets of London did much to endear Harry to the British people.

Like William, Harry attended a sequence of private schools before entering prestigious Eton College. After graduating from Eton in 2003, Harry visited Argentina and Africa and worked on a cattle station in Australia and in an orphanage in Lesotho. Instead of going to university, Harry entered Sandhurst—Britain’s leading military academy for training army officers—in May 2005. He was commissioned an officer in April 2006.

Harry being in the line of succession to the British throne, he was often the subject of media attention. In January 2005 he encountered intense criticism when he attended a party wearing a Nazi uniform with a swastika armband. The prince later apologized for what he conceded was a serious error of judgment.


Henry VIII: Early Life

Henry was born on June 28, 1491, the second son of Henry VII, the first English ruler from the House of Tudor. While his older brother Arthur was being prepared for the throne, Henry was steered toward a church career, with a broad education in theology, music, languages, poetry and sports.

Did you know? An accomplished musician, Henry VIII of England wrote a song entitled "Pastime With Good Company" that was popular throughout Renaissance Europe.

Arthur had been betrothed since age 2 to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella, and in November of 1501 the teenage couple were married. Months later, Arthur died of a sudden illness. Henry became next in line for the throne and in 1503 was betrothed to his brother’s widow.


The secret tragedy Princess Alice kept from Prince Henry

The third son of King George V and Queen Mary, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester was born on 31 March 1900.

He was the first son of a monarch to be educated at school and went onto study at Eton College.

His life was full of tragedy starting with not being able to continue his life with the woman he was having an affair with, Beryl Markham and having to pay her and her husband hush-money for the rest of her life. He lost his older brother, Edward VIII when he abdicated and moved to France with Wallis Simpson and his younger brother, Prince George, Duke of Kent when he died in a military air crash. No tragedy more so then not learning about the death of his own son.

A few months shy of his 65th birthday, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester were travelling home from Winston Churchill’s funeral when Prince Henry suffered a stroke resulting in a car accident. Prince Henry was thrown from the car, and the Duchess suffered facial injuries. This was only the first of many stokes. The Duke eventually ended up in a wheelchair and lost the ability to speak in the final years of his life until he died in 1974.

Two years before his death, his son, Prince William died. Prince William was President of the British Aviation Centre and a licensed pilot who loved competing in amateur air show races.

On 28 August 1972, Prince William took off for the last time at 30-years-old. He was competing in the Goodyear International Air Trophy at Halfpenny Green. Flying with the Prince was Vyrell Mitchell, who he often competed against.

They were flying a yellow and white Piper Cherokee Arrow. Soon after take-off, the plane banked sharply hitting a tree and plummeted to the ground.
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Derek Perton was one of three boys who tried to rescue Prince William and Vyrell Mitchell, but the flames were too big. Recalling the moment, Perton said: “We tried to break into the plane’s doors and then tried to break it in half by pulling at the tail.

“But it was no good, we had to go back because of the heat.”

Firefighters made it to the scene only a few minutes later, but by that time the heat from the fire was too much even for their equipment. The flames took two hours to get under control.

The bodies of the men were only identified by dental records the following day.

Plans for The Queen and Princess Anne to visit the Olympics in Munich were called off. The Duke of Edinburgh, who was already in Munich, returned early for the funeral.

With the Duke of Gloucester in poor health, the Duchess of Gloucester was unsure if she should tell her husband about their son’s death despite the condolences pouring in.

The Prime Minister at the time, Edward Heath, was one of the first to send a message of condolence to both the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester and The Queen.

Princess Alice admitted herself: “I was completely stunned and have never been quite the same since, though I have tried to persuade myself that it was better to have known and lost him than never to have had him at all.”

In her memoirs first published in 1981 The Memoirs of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and revised in 1991 as the Memories of Ninety Years, the Duchess revealed that she never did tell Prince Henry that their son was killed. However, she did go on to say he may have learned about Prince William’s death from television coverage.

Prince William was buried at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. Two years later, Prince Henry died and was buried at the same location, once again to be reunited.


King of Poland & Lithuania [ edit | edit source ]

Following the death of the Polish ruler Sigismund II Augustus on July 7, 1572, Jean de Monluc was sent as the French envoy to Poland to negotiate the election of Henry to Polish throne in exchange for military support against Russia, diplomatic assistance in dealing with the Ottoman Empire, and financial subsidies. On May 16, 1573, Polish nobles chose Henry as the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Lithuanian nobles boycotted this election, however, and it was left to the Lithuanian ducal council to confirm his election. Thus the Commonwealth elected Henry, rather than Habsburg candidates, partly in order to be more agreeable to the Ottoman Empire (a traditional ally of France through the Franco-Ottoman alliance) and strengthen a Polish-Ottoman alliance that was also in effect.

At a ceremony before the Paris parliament on September 13, the Polish delegation handed over the "certificate of election to the throne of Poland-Lithuania". Henry also gave up any claims to succession and he "recognized the principle of free election" under the Henrician Articles and the pacta conventa. It was not until January 1574 that Henry was to reach the borders of Poland. On February 21, Henry's coronation was held in Kraków. In mid-June 1574, upon learning of the death of his brother, the king Of France Charles IX, Henry left Poland and headed back to France. Henry's absence "provoked a constitutional crisis" that the Parliament attempted to resolve by notifying Henry that his throne would be lost if he did not return from France by May 12, 1575. His failure to return caused Parliament to declare his throne vacant. The short reign of Henry at Wawel Castle in Poland was marked by a clash of cultures between the Polish and the French. The young king and his followers were astonished by several Polish practices and disappointed by the rural poverty and harsh climate of the country.The Polish, on the other hand, wondered if all Frenchmen were as concerned with their appearance as their new king appeared to be.


Biography

Before 1512

When Henry was a child, the royal family lived at the Château d'Amboise where he would play in the courtyard among some little trees. However, after what he calls "the war", the residence was abandoned, and by 1512, it is a ruin.

In 1512, Henry is a young man. However, according to his father, he is "floundering" in life. Therefore, King Francis has betrothed him to Princess Gabriella of Spain. Though, both the princess and prince want to marry someone else during their marriage.

His first meeting with Danielle

Henry resists this decision and at night intends to run away to Genoa. His horse slips its shoe on the way, so he steals the horse of Danielle de Barbarac's late father to escape the Royal Guard who are chasing him. He does not get far, though, because Danielle catches him and knocks him off the horse with an apple. After he reveals his identity, he pays Danielle twenty francs for her silence and continues on horseback.

In the forest, he runs into Leonardo da Vinci, who on-route to the royal palace is being mugged by gypsies. Henry stops and considers whether to help or to continue his journey, and he nearly chooses the latter, but da Vinci sees him and begs him to recover a painting. Henry relents and chases after the thief. A horseback chase ensues, and Henry is victorious, although he and the thief fall into a nearby river in the process. He returns the painting, which turns out to be the Mona Lisa, and is apprehended by the Royal Guard led by Captain Laurent. Laurent tells Henry who da Vinci is, and, realizing that he could help him, Henry begs da Vinci to help him with talking his father out of the arranged marriage with Gabriella.

His first meeting with Marguerite

On the way back to the castle with the Royal Guard and Leonardo da Vinci, Henry stops at the manor where Danielle lives to return the horse he stole. He describes his encounter with Danielle to Rodmilla before Marguerite and Jacqueline stumble out of the house, Marguerite wearing her obscenely large brooch on her chest. Henry compliments the girls. He then tells Rodmilla that there were new developments as regards to his engagement to the Spanish princess. His eye is drawn by Marguerite's brooch, and he compliments it before leaving.

His second meeting with Danielle

At the castle, Henry encounters Danielle again, this time while she is unsuccessfully negotiating the release of her servant, Maurice. Henry does not recognize her, but, struck by her courage and outspokenness, he orders Maurice's release. Then, he follows her across the courtyard, intrigued by her quoting of Thomas More's Utopia, and he asks for her name repeatedly until she gives him the alias Comtesse Nicole de Lancret. They are interrupted by Henry's mother, Queen Marie, and Danielle escapes, leaving Henry puzzled and disappointed.

Marie takes Henry to his father, King Francis, who scolds Henry for not taking his duties to his country seriously and demands that he marry Princess Gabriella. Henry argues that it is his life and refuses his position as Crown Prince of France before storming off.

Planning the ball

That evening, Henry and his mother walk in the gardens together. Henry tries to find out from her who "Comtesse de Lancret" is, but fails. Francis joins them, announcing that he is throwing a masked ball in honour of da Vinci. The king offers Henry a compromise: either he finds love before the masque, or he marries Gabriella. Henry accepts this offer.

At a river, Henry discusses the nature of soul mates with Leonardo da Vinci. Then, they try out da Vinci's latest creation: shoes with which to walk on water. Da Vinci comes back with a wet Danielle, and Henry offers his cloak to her. He and Danielle talk, and they begin to fall in love. Henry is once again disappointed when Danielle leaves in a hurry.

It also turns out later that Henry got his father to stop the enslaving of criminals and debtors as a result of "Comtesse Nicole"'s speech about the wrongs of society.

The market

The next day, Henry plays tennis with the Marquis de Limoges. During the match, he falls backwards into the watching crowd. He is immediately rushed by a dozen women who stuff his doublet full of handkerchiefs in the hope that he might return them. Disgruntled, Henry instead picks them off him and throws them on the ground. Marguerite hands him the ball, thus once more catching Henry's attention.

Later, at the market, Henry walks with Marguerite. He offers her chocolate and is discomforted when Marguerite, instead of taking the chocolate herself, opens her mouth, forcing the Prince to put the chocolate into her mouth himself out of politeness. When Henry meets the de Ghents' servants, Louise and Paulette, he gets a chicken thrown into his face before he can recognize Danielle in the stall.

His third meeting with Danielle

That Sunday, Henry avoids church due to the large number of suitors flocking there to see him. While looking for da Vinci, he spots the inventor's kite, which is being flown by Danielle. He rides up to Gustave, asking for da Vinci, and is thrilled when the young painter tells him that "Nicole" is home alone at Rodmilla de Ghent's manor. He immediately rides there and asks Danielle to accompany him to the monastery. There, he is enraptured by Danielle's passion for books and learning.

On the way home, the carriage wheel breaks. At first, Henry scoffs at Danielle's suggestion that they walk, but after a little persuasion, he agrees to it. However, they get lost, so Danielle climbs a cliff in her undergarments to locate the castle. Henry is impressed at her Amazonian qualities. Then, the gypsies ambush him from behind. After a swordfight with one of them, Henry surrenders as to make them let Danielle go. He is once again embarrassed and impressed when Danielle, after striking a deal with the gypsy leader, carries him away on her back. The gypsies invite them to a meal, and he and Danielle talk, drink, and play games that evening before Henry escorts her home. Just before they part, Henry asks Danielle to meet him the next day at the ruins of Amboise.

His fourth meeting with Danielle

The next morning, Henry wakes his parents up and declares that he wants to build a university for the people and that the gypsies are invited to the ball.

Later, he meets with Danielle. He is completely ignorant of Danielle's upset countenance and excitedly recounts his childhood in Amboise and his project for building a university before declaring his love for Danielle, whom he still thinks is "Nicole".  He is confused when Danielle hurriedly leaves. When he gets home, his mother the Queen informs him that, according to Rodmilla, "Nicole" is engaged to a Belgian. Henry is furious and upset.

The ball

Henry does not attend the ball at first, instead choosing to sulk in an empty corridor. Back at the masque, he is about to announce his engagement to the Princess of Spain when Danielle arrives in a stunning costume. However, when Rodmilla announces to the entire assembly who Danielle really is, Henry is embarrassed and coldly rejects her. Da Vinci finds him sulking on the battlements of the castle and chews him out for having treated Danielle badly. After da Vinci leaves, Henry contemplates Danielle's shoe, which the artist left behind.

After the ball, he is about to marry Gabriella, but realizes that the reason that she is crying is because she loves another man. Inspired by this, he leaves the church to find Danielle and is horrified to learn that she has been sold to Pierre le Pieu. He is not surprised to see that she has rescued herself already, and begs her forgiveness before proposing to her.

Epilogue

When Rodmilla is taken to the court and gets her punishment from Danielle, Henry smirks. After Leonardo gives Danielle his wedding present, she and Henry kiss.


Unchartered Waters - (Mentioned)
Queen Catherine informed Lord Narcisse Queen Leeza was back in Spain, but she's not happy. Catherine informed her Prince Henry's return to France had been delayed, 'cause he is fighting Turks on behalf of the Catholic faith. Something that would please her, she liked the slaughter of infidels, but still she wants Henri on the throne, not his older brother. Leeza would allow King Charles to remain king while Henry's was delayed. In the meantime, she's requesting that she attend Mary and Darnley's Wedding. insisted that she represent both France and Spain's support of a Catholic union.

A Better Man
Lord Narcisse tells Queen Catherine that Nicole Touchet is turning into a proper lady, and she wants to be a courtesan. In return, she is guiding Charles for them, keeping him in line. However Leeza still wants Charles off the throne, and believes Henri is the man to keep France Catholic. And after agreeing to let her handle matters, Leeza went behind her back and she wrote to Henri directly, he is on his way to France now now, fresh from his latest defeat of the Turks, aware that Spain wants him on the throne.

Later, Henri arrives, sitting Leeza's letters that Charles is unwell and he was needed immediately. His mother assured him, his brother is quite recovered and will not be abdicating.

Dead of Night
Prince Henri claims he'd be a better King. Leeza said Charles was not right in the head, and he was needed.

The Shakedown
Queen Catherine tells her son King Charles she wanted to protect him by making him strong, but he insists he is weak, and everyone can see it but you. First Leeza, then Henri. He couldn't let England see that, or his own people, that's why he ordered those heads cut off, to hide the truth that he's afraid


All It Cost Her
Queen Catherine convinces her sons King Charles and Prince Henri that their sister Leeza has used them, and turned them agenst each other.


Contents

In a kingdom in the Enchanted Forest, Prince Henry, the son of King Xavier, is fifth in line to the throne. One day in the castle, he and his father are entertaining a northern princess, Princess Eva, who has come for a visit. He encounters Cora, a lowly daughter of a miller delivering flour. Cora is chastised for spilling the flour all over the floor and ruining Eva's slippers, yet he is the only one to stand up for Cora saying he does not believe the girl meant any harm. However, he walks away with the rest of the royals when they exit the courtyard after King Xavier forces Cora to kneel and apologize to Eva. Later, he encounters Cora at the masquerade ball being held in Eva's honor, and the two dance until King Xavier cuts in. His hand in marriage is promised to Cora if she can spin straw into gold as she claims she can. Cora proves it by spinning gold in front of the whole court, and a humbled Henry offers his hand to Cora in marriage, and she accepts. Henry and his wife eventually have a daughter, Regina. In front of the king's court, Cora declares that her daughter shall be queen one day. ("The Miller's Daughter")

Some years later, Henry and Cora rush to Regina's side after she knocks herself unconscious with magic from Cora's wand. He asked his wife how this happened since she had locked her wand in a drawer, and Cora regretfully admits she forgot to take the key with her. Since it's her magic that is causing their daughter pain, Cora deducts that only someone close to Regina who hasn't harmed her can heal her. She later returns with Zelena, her first born child whom she once gave up, with the girl curing Regina with her magic. After Regina is well again, Henry is astonished at her miracleous recovery, and he questions Cora about Zelena's identity, but she doesn't divulge the truth. ("Sisters")

Several years after this, he serves as his daughter's valet. On the home estate, he proudly watches Regina give a horse-riding demonstration, though Cora finds it to be too unladylike and childish. When he tries to defend Regina, his wife curtly asks him to stop coddling their daughter. Upset by her mother's words, Regina moves to leave, but Cora stops her with magic. Helplessly, Henry watches as Cora levitates and holds Regina in the air until she agrees to be "good". In her quest to install her daughter a queen, Cora purposely sets up a situation in which Regina rescues King Leopold's daughter, Snow White. Later, while Henry is also present, an impressed King Leopold asks for Regina's hand in marriage. Directly after the proposal, a speechless Regina glances at her father for help, but he remains silent as Cora accepts the marriage on her daughter's behalf. ("The Stable Boy")

As the impending wedding approaches, Regina consults with her father about how unhappy she is about her future. Not wanting to be like her mother, she asks how Cora become this way. Vaguely, Henry recalls there was a man that taught Cora magic through a spell book. ("We Are Both")

During Regina's marriage to King Leopold, her husband brings home the Genie he has freed with one of his three wishes. The Genie falls in love with her at first sight, and Regina uses his infatuation to her advantage to escape her loveless marriage. She writes of her "love" for him in a diary. King Leopold reads the entry, but is unaware the man she is pining after is the Genie. Angry, he locks her up in the castle. Fearing for his daughter's life, Henry delivers a box with a poisonous vipers inside it to the Genie in the hopes that he will take it to Regina's chambers saying that this is the only way Regina can be free. In the end, Regina tricks the Genie into killing King Leopold with the vipers. ("Fruit of the Poisonous Tree")

On the anniversary of Daniel's death, Henry accompanies Regina when she interrupts a wedding ceremony taking place on the grounds near her castle. Not having given them permission to do so, she rips out the groom's heart, as her father begs her not to overreact, especially considering whose anniversary it is. Regina snaps at him for reminding her what day it is, and as she grows upset at his insinuation of her weakness, she crushes the groom's heart. Walking back to her carriage, she then coldly tells him to find his own way home, before leaving her father behind. Later, while Henry is brushing Regina's hair in her bedroom, Cora walks in, flippantly telling him to get out so she can speak to her daughter. ("Mother")

Accompanying Regina to a village where Snow White is rumored to be hiding, Henry suggests killing Snow will make her unfavorable in the eyes of her subjects and that she should spare the girl as mercy. Regina refuses his advice and goes into the hut to rip out Snow's heart, only to find a decoy dummy in her place. Later in Regina's palace, Henry leads his daughter into believing he can help her with a map from one of Cora's spell books that'll bring them to an item to locate Snow. Once they reach the doorway to the supposed item, he comes clean about having learnt about the place from Tinker Bell. Inside the door, Henry shows her a statue of Cupid holding an arrow that can point her to the person she loves most, but Regina becomes upset at her father's perceived betrayal of her. Regina then casts a reverse spell on the arrow so it will guide her to the person she hates most, however, she and Henry follow it back to the palace, where the arrow leads Regina to a mirror, proving the person she hates most is herself. ("Page 23")

The day of Regina's birthday, Henry sees her getting worked up about Snow White, and tries to persuade her into giving up on revenge. Instead of Snow White, he points the blame on Cora, who ripped out Daniel's heart to mold Regina into a merciless queen. He argues that as long as Regina wants vengeance, Cora will always have a hold on her. Since Regina won't listen to him, Henry pushes the Magic Mirror into summoning Cora. He wants her to help Regina move on, but when Cora expresses no interest in this, he attempts to end the conversation. Cora reappears in the nearby looking glass to stop him, however, he announces his intent to talk with Snow White, and that he doesn't need Cora's help anymore. Unknown to him, summoning Cora allows her to re-enter the Enchanted Forest through the looking glass. Henry sets up a meeting with Snow White in the woods, but Cora, disguised as Henry, gets there first. The arrival of the real Henry distracts Snow White, whose heart is taken by Cora. Henry secretly returns the heart to Snow White and replaces it with a heart from a Black Knight, before Cora gives the heart to Regina. After Regina discovers this, Henry insists he did it for her own good, because killing Snow White will make her dark forever and she'll become just like Cora. He believes Regina can find happiness elsewhere, and by letting Snow White go, Regina has a chance at redemption. Knowing she will punish him for his meddling, Henry contends he doesn't care what happens to him, to which Regina shrinks him into a miniature size and locks him in a box. Realizing her father was right about Cora, Regina casts a non-reversible spell to seal the looking glass portal and has the Magic Mirror take her mother away. Before Cora is pulled back into Wonderland, she steals the box, severing Regina from Henry forever. ("Souls of the Departed")

Having no other means to rescue her father, Regina enlists the former portal-jumper Jefferson and strikes a deal with him, in order to reach Wonderland, although she deceives Jefferson by telling him the Queen of Hearts stole an item from her instead of a person. After reaching the center of the Queen of Hearts' hedge maze, Regina picks out a box from the vault that contains Henry. On the way out of Wonderland, she gives Henry a piece of the Caterpillar's growth mushroom to restore him to normal size. Only then, it becomes clear to Jefferson why she lied to him, as the portal hat they used to come to Wonderland only allows the same amount of people who enter a world to leave. Regina then traps Jefferson in Wonderland, while she and her father go back to the Enchanted Forest. ("Hat Trick")

While Regina wages war against Snow White and Prince Charming, she is eventually captured and sentenced to death. Before this happens, he visits his daughter in the prison cell and is later a witness at the execution, which is shortly halted by Snow White. After Regina is banished from the kingdom on Snow White's orders, Henry stays with her in a palace. He announces the arrival of Rumplestiltskin, who gives Regina the idea of using the Dark Curse to harm the people she hates most. To this, Henry summons a carriage to take Regina to Snow White and Prince Charming's wedding ceremony. ("The Cricket Game")

Regina, attempting to cast the curse, collects the hairs of the darkest souls and sacrifices the heart of her favorite horse, but the spell doesn't work. While she seethes over the failure, Henry advises her to talk to the curse creator, Rumplestiltskin. After she does, Regina regroups with her father at the palace. Henry inquiries about how the talk went, and he is stunned when Regina says the curse will only work if she takes the heart of the thing she loves most, which is him. He tries to convince her that she doesn't need to live with hatred all the time, and the two of them can start a new life over again. In tears, she agrees and hugs him. However, Regina then rips out his heart as he collapses to the ground in shock. Resigned to her decision, Regina apologetically explains she could never be happy in this world. Later, she buries Henry with a grave marker that reads, "Henry, Beloved Father" and places a black flower for him. ("The Thing You Love Most")

In the Underworld, Henry's soul is unable to move on because of his unfinished business. After Regina arrives to this world, she uses the Ale of Seonaidh to summon her father. Harboring enormous guilt over killing him, she apologizes and begs for his forgiveness. He forgives her and reassures her that he loves her no matter what. Regina insists on doing all she can now to lessen his suffering because Cora said he would pay the price if she doesn't leave the Underworld now. Henry warns that Cora is just using him to get Regina to leave, but he advises her to stay and help her friends because they need her strength, and by doing this, she'll be making something good of his death. Later, Regina encounters her mother, who is trying to push Henry into the fire, to show Regina her fate if she chooses to stay, which is to burn in the flaming abyss. As Henry is pulled into a ring of fire, Cora teleports away in a cloud of smoke. Regina watches, horrified at her father's fate, before the flames surrounding Henry vanish and a bridge forms, beckoning him to move on from the Underworld. In this instance, Henry realizes his unfinished business was to make sure his daughter is on the right path in life, because his biggest regret in life was letting Cora control her. Relieved that Regina is now free, he praises her, stating how proud he is of her and reminds her to be herself. He meets his adoptive grandson and namesake, Henry, and thanks him for looking out for her when he could not. He reminds the boy to take care of her, and with that, he bids both him and Regina a tearful goodbye, finally ascending to his final abode on Mount Olympus. ("Souls of the Departed")


Meghan Markle

Prince Harry began dating actress Markle, star of the television show Suits, in 2016. They met while Harry was attending the Invictus Games in Toronto, where Suits is filmed. In November of that year, Kensington Palace issued a statement confirming their relationship. The statement also requested privacy and respect for the couple after Markle had been subjected to racist and sexist attacks on social media, as well as harassment by paparazzi.

On November 27, 2017, it was revealed that Prince Harry and Markle had secretly gotten engaged earlier in the month. An official announcement said the two would marry the following spring and move to Nottingham Cottage at Kensington Palace in London. Later, it was revealed that the couple would marry on May 19, 2018, in St. George&aposs Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.

Photo: Max Mumby/Indigo/Getty Images

News of the engagement was greeted with enthusiasm by other members of the royal family. Prince Charles and the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh all declared they were "delighted" at the announcement, while Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, said they were "very excited for Harry and Meghan," adding, "It has been wonderful getting to know Meghan and to see how happy she and Harry are together."

In March 2018, the Daily Mail reported that Prince Harry would not sign a prenuptial agreement. According to a source, "There was never any question in Harry’s mind that he would sign a prenup. He’s determined that his marriage will be a lasting one, so there’s no need for him to sign anything." Additionally, prenups were not considered to be legally binding in the United Kingdom, though judges were known to take them into consideration during divorce trials.


Prince Henry 'the Navigator'. A Life

Peter Russell's Henry 'the Navigator' is one of those rare books which has had classic, or rather legendary, status even before it was published. It was no secret that Russell was long at work on a full biography of a figure whom he had already drastically redrawn in his Canning House lecture forty years ago (Prince Henry the Navigator, Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Councils, 1960), and in subsequent lectures and articles. Even his first book, The English intervention in Spain and Portugal in the time of Edward III and Richard II (Oxford, 1955), pointed the way towards this interest in Henry, for both at the start and at the end of his new book Russell makes much of Henry's English ancestry, through his mother Philippa of Lancaster, and of his pride in his membership of the Order of the Garter and in both books his fine mastery of the sources and his understanding of the Spanish as well as the Portuguese dimensions are plain to see.

Fortunately quite a few of Russell's earlier studies of Henry and his era were gathered together in a volume of the Variorum Collected Studies entitled Portugal, Spain and the African Atlantic. Chivalry and crusade from John of Gaunt to Henry the Navigator (Aldershot, 1995). Here already was a title that gave away a good deal about Russell's understanding of Henry as he says in the last words of his new book:


The Gothic tomb he had designed, its representation of himself and everything else about it belonged wholly to the later Middle Ages. So, when all is said and done, did he and all his works. The Henrican discoveries, as well as the way the Prince explained and justified them, are seen to be an entirely medieval phenomenon in which, uniquely, the doctrines of the crusade and the ideology of chivalry came together to make possible, under Prince Henry's direction, a major scientific contribution to European man's knowledge of the wider world about him.

Naturally, the image he presented of Henry in 1960 was not to the taste of a Portuguese régime which sought to identify in the prince one of its greatest national heroes, the founder of Portugal's then still surviving empire, and a scholar who was (it was often suggested) for the art of navigation and the science of geography what Leonardo was for the art of painting and the science of engineering. Indeed, even today the era of the discoveries remains the foundation on which most Portuguese believe their national history rests. Just as for the Catalans a slightly earlier period is seen as the greatest period of national glory, so for the Portuguese the end of the Middle Ages is a time both glorious and highly significant. It was also in this period, as the Portuguese insist with reasonable accuracy, that Portugal established its national boundaries, which have hardly changed since the late Middle Ages, unlike those of every other European state.

But those boundaries do not tell the whole story. Quite apart from the fact that they exclude the region of Galicia, where a language close to Portuguese is spoken, they also do not coincide with the boundaries which Henry conceived for Portuguese power and influence. To the continental lands of Portugal must be added the uninhabited Atlantic islands discovered by his sea captains, colonised by Portuguese and Italians, and made into major sources of wealth, particularly in the case of Madeira, and to some degree in the Azores as well this was mainly as a result of the development of the Atlantic sugar industry. Henry, as Russell shows, was well aware of the financial advantages of sugar production, and he had an uncanny understanding of the fact that Italian merchants were keen, in the early to mid-fifteenth century, to lessen their dependence on eastern Mediterranean sugar and to exploit sources of sugar in western areas such as Granada. So when a group of Venetians, including Henry's eventual chronicler Alvise da Mosto (often wrongly called Cadamosto, by Russell as well as by others), called on the prince in the Algarve, Henry went out of his way to show them examples of Madeiran sugar. And, as Russell surmises, Henry wanted to attract foreign capital after all, sugar production was a complex process, involving elaborate machinery and intensive labour. He did not close his Atlantic voyages to foreign navigators and merchants.

As if founding the Atlantic sugar industry was not enough, Henry can also be blamed for founding the Atlantic slave trade. In the early sixteenth century slaves and sugar would come together to form a tragic combination, and Russell is understandably prepared to allow his own very justifiable feelings to intrude here, when he describes the first public sale of African slaves at Lagos, on the Algarve, in 1444. This he judiciously balances with a survey of the longer history of slave trading in the Mediterranean, particularly in Genoese hands. The horrors of the sale at Lagos, as mother and child were separated while Henry, mounted on his horse looked on (and in due course claimed his royal fifth of the slaves) were not lost on the chronicler Zurara, even though Zurara did not falter in his admiration for Prince Henry. This of course takes us to the heart of Russell's assessment of Henry. He is not, one might say, a very nice man. He proves capable of abandoning his brother to a ghastly death in a Moroccan prison, because Prince Henry is not prepared to honour an agreement to return the city of Ceuta to the Muslims, following the failure of an expedition to Tangier for which he carries much of the responsibility. His refusal to listen to good advice, and his preference for the advice of those in his entourage, is a character flaw that leads on this occasion to disaster.

And yet Russell's Henry is a man with a plan, or rather several interlocking plans: the achievement of great victories against the infidel. Even the settlement of uninhabited Madeira was at one point proclaimed a victory over the unbeliever, though to say this was to lose a sense of reality. Broadly, Henry's schemes can be understood as four projects: one, to gain for himself the crown of Granada or at least a slice of Granadan territory, was completely at odds with Castilian interests, though maybe that was why it appealed to a prince who had an obsessive hatred of Castile. But even the parallel project of Portuguese expansion in Morocco was indirectly hostile to Castile, which had broadly agreed with the Catalans that Morocco should be within its sphere of influence, while the kings of Aragon pursued Catalan objectives in eastern Algeria and Tunisia. The Portuguese plan to attack Ceuta in 1415 had to be kept secret not just so that the Marinid rulers of Morocco would not hear about it at the time, there were rumours that Portugal was fitting out a fleet to capture Málaga, the major port in Nasrid Granada, or Gibraltar, the other Pillar of Hercules facing Ceuta. Moreover, as any reader of L.P. Harvey's authoritative history of Later Islamic Spain, 1250-1500 (Chicago, 1991) will know, the delicate triangular relationship between Castile, Morocco and Granada was placed at risk by Portuguese intervention in Morocco. Ceuta was a prize that Muslim rulers of Spain had often sought to gain for themselves, just as the Moroccans had occasionally reached across to try to grab Algeciras or Gibraltar.

The security of the Straits was a longstanding matter of concern, since on it depended the free movement of Italian and Catalan shipping from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and, by this time, we can add as well the free movement of Portuguese, Galician and Basque shipping from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean (the first signs of Portuguese shipping in the Mediterranean, according to Heers [Société et économie à Gênes, London, 1979], date from the 1390s, while studies by Elisa Ferreira Priegue have much enlarged our understanding of links between Galicia and the Mediterranean: Fuentes para la exportación gallega de la segunda mitad del s. XV, Santiago, 1984, and Galicia en el comercio marítimo medieval, Santiago, 1988). And if the aim was to capture Ceuta's trade, including its gold trade, as some have argued, that was certainly not achieved: business henceforth by-passed Ceuta entirely, and it became the garrison city which it has remained ever since for although Portugal lost Ceuta in 1580 it was lost to Spain, of which it remains a part, and not to the Moroccans. And even in the fifteenth century the running of Ceuta proved a massively expensive business the main return was prestige, particularly for Henry, whose heroic role in the capture of the city was well known. Throughout Henry's career, Morocco continued to fascinate and attract Henry, who was present at the fall of Alcácer-Ceguer, a not very important fortress between Ceuta and Tangier) to the Portuguese in 1458, as he had been at the fall of Ceuta forty-three years earlier. Equally, antagonism to Morocco presented commercial difficulties: the Atlantic coast was an important source of grain (favoured by the Genoese), and Portugal too had need of food supplies it also needed local Moroccan products for its trade further down the African coast. All this is extremely well explained by Russell.

The third project concerned the Canary Islands. The Canaries were sometimes seen as a jumping off point for penetration into Africa and one of Henry's great obsessions, Russell reveals, was the conquest of the Canary Islands. Russell deftly shows how the Canaries stand for many of Henry's faults and virtues. He displayed little understanding of the logistical problems involved in attacks on islands which, unlike Madeira and the Azores had substantial warlike populations, though it was a clever move to win over some Gomerans to the Portuguese side and to let them help in slave raiding on other islands than La Gomera. Still, the familiar priorities are there: an interest in the islands as a source of slaves a wish, in conjunction with King Duarte, to convince the papal curia to uphold Portuguese claims in the face of existing grants of the islands to Castile a wish to present the conquest of the islands as a crusade, while at the same time Henry was only too glad to entertain Gomeran princes in style, or even to use captive Canary islanders in a dance routine set up in order to impress visiting dignitaries. Russell offers a very clear and well balanced account of the lively debate which arose at the papal curia the Portuguese sought to portray the Canary islanders as brute savages, ignorant of letters and of civilised manners. But this can be set alongside another tradition, going back to a Portuguese expedition to the islands as early as approximately 1341 and to a report on that expedition by Boccaccio, which portrays them as innocent beings living in a state of nature: knowledge of the 1341 expedition seems largely to have evaporated outside Italy by this time, though some Florentine humanists were still interested in it in the fifteenth century (see T.J. Cachey, Le isole fortunate, Rome, 1995, and J.K. Hyde, Literacy and its uses. Studies on late medieval Italy, ed. D. Waley, Manchester, 1993, pp. 199-202).

What all this points to, as Russell well knows, is that the west African expeditions which, in the very long term, launched Portugal on the route to the Indies and to empire were only one part, and not the major part, of the schemes of Prince Henry, the fourth of the four interlocking schemes outlined here. We see the traditional obsession with the need to find the sources of gold which were believed to fuel the military machine of Islam this can be traced back to the visit of the king of Mali, Mansa Musa, to Cairo in the mid-fourteenth century, during which he scattered so much gold in the streets that there was a bout of serious inflation. Moreover, as Russell is careful to observe (with the help of contemporary portolan charts) the search for the Rio de Oro had a long pedigree, with particular honour being accorded on the map legends to the Majorcan Jaume Ferrer in the 1340's. He reappears aboard his vessel with monotonous regularity on later illustrated charts, such as the mid-fifteenth-century Este world map in Modena.

When the attention switches to da Mosto's reports, and to the visual images that hung in da Mosto's memory such as hippos and giant palm trees, as well as the physical attributes of newly discovered peoples, we are also reminded that what was being discovered was a world altogether different from those, Christian and Islamic, with which medieval Iberians were familiar. But there were certainly periods when African exploration was a secondary concern of Prince Henry and, more to the point, his interest in it was less obviously guided by the wish to convert the native peoples than he liked people in Portugal and western Europe to think. All this is demonstrated by Russell with enormous skill and any summary does not do justice to the subtlety of his approach and the way he shows Henry's ideas developing and changing back and forth.

Russell is keen to disclaim any understanding of Henry's emotional life the real man, he insist, is not easily accessible. Yet in fact he has done much to make him so by revealing the depth of his commitment to holy war against Islam, the callousness of his approach to the violent seizure of slaves on the African coast, the patronage he was keen to extend to his favourites, and his relationship to other members of the royal family such as his nephew and heir Fernando. On his own entourage there will be more to be said, particularly once Ivana Elbl of Trent University in Canada has completed her own study of Henry and his squires. For Russell is often briefer on the social, economic and institutional setting than the subject deserves. He has tried to concentrate as far as possible on Henry, though in the latter stages of the book we are treated to more discursive discussions of subjects such as slavery and what Alvise da Mosto saw on his journeys along the coasts of west Africa. It is a pity that the background in Portugal itself is dealt with so briefly. There are interesting and relevant questions about how the Portuguese navy emerged, and what the role of Italian businessmen was in the emergence of Lisbon as significant centre of trade for some, such as Jacques Heers (Gênes au XVe siècle, Paris, 1961) the commercial ties between Italy and Portugal were weak, even though there was a significant community of Italians in Lisbon, quite well integrated into local business networks. Charles Verlinden, on the other hand, tended to see the Italians as a major source of inspiration for Portuguese, and later for Castilian, methods of colonial exploitation (The Beginnings of Modern Colonization, Ithaca, NY, 1970). Particularly helpful in setting out the antecedents is a small study by Bailey Diffie, Prelude to Empire (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1960), which in fact Russell does not cite Diffie insists on the importance of several centuries of Portuguese fishing and commerce in explaining the career of Henry the Navigator.

Indeed, it is interesting to compare Russell's approach here with that of the author of another book on Henry, also published in 2000 (though the book in question is a shorter version of a work first published in 1994): Michel Vergé-Franceschi's Un prince portugais (Paris, 2000). Frankly, Vergé-Franceschi's work is very disappointing: it is extensively based on Zurara and da Mosto and it makes little attempt to challenge the classic view of Henry as a far-sighted patron of exploration and discovery in fact, it repeats a number of now exploded errors such as the view that a converted member of the Jewish Cresques family of Majorca was the prince's cartographer. Its author does not even cite Russell's earlier work on Henry (though he does mention The English Intervention, mis-spelling Russell's name). The only reason for dwelling on the work is that Vergé-Franceschi devotes some space to the antecedents (such as the role of Portuguese fisheries in the development of the fleet) and to wider problems of navigation, issues which tend to be summarised rather briefly in Russell's book. The obvious explanation is that Russell did not want to make a long book even longer on the other hand, there are certainly passages where cuts could have been made, because points are repeated within a page or two. Thus on pages 90 and 91 we are twice told that Zurara rejoices in the quantity of wood found on Madeira (whose name means just that: wood), so that it will be possible to take it back home and build houses several stories high back home in Portugal. Da Mosto's interest in dragon's blood (a dye extracted from trees found in Madeira's neighbour Porto Santo, and in the Canaries) is also mentioned twice not many pages apart. Clearly a book so long in the making has gone through many recensions, and to some extent we can identify the different layers in the way the author returns to favourite themes and repeats what are rarely anything but fascinating points. In any case, some room could have been found for more material on the context. And, while Yale are to be congratulated on producing such a handsome volume at such a reasonable price, it is also a pity that there are so many misprints the last chapter seems especially riddled with them, and they should be corrected before a paperback edition is issued, which will, it is to be hoped, also include the excellent colour illustrations. This problem, along with that of occasional repetition, suggests that Yale have not sustained the meticulous standard of copy editing characteristic of some other leading American university presses.

Vergé-Franceschi accepts that the famous panel of St Vincent in Lisbon attributed to the painter Nuno Gonçalves contains a portrait of Henry along with the rest of the court and Yale have chosen this portrait for a very attractive book cover. Russell is somewhat sceptical about this identification. Quite helpful here is a book by Anne Francis, Voyage of Re-discovery (Hicksville, NY, 1979), which seeks to identify each of the figures in the painting without denying that there are infinite problems in so doing. But we can take this painting as an emblem of the Henry problem. Not merely his portrait but the so-called School of Navigators at Sagres (above all its 'wind rose', marked out on the ground in the Sagres complex) and James of Majorca go up in smoke. Yet, far from being left with charred remains, Russell provides us with a living portrait of the career and obsessions of a man who, unwittingly - and that is the point - opened the way to the Indies. The image favoured by modern Portuguese sculptors is of a far-sighted scientist gazing across the open Ocean at the unknown - or not so unknown, because of course he can sense Portugal's destiny out there in the Great Blue Sea. Now the hero's vision is narrowed. His human faults are identified. This is not merely henceforth the standard study of Henry it is also a book with wide ramifications for the study of fifteenth-century Europe and for the study of the early phases of European expansion. And, on top of that, it is immensely enjoyable and readable, a model of scholarly history, well based in the sources, which is also accessible to a wider audience.


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